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      Nephron Endowment and Renal Filtration Surface Area in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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          Background/Aims: A reduction in nephron endowment leading to reduced renal filtration surface area has been implicated in the development of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare glomerular (and thereby nephron) number and renal filtration surface area in young Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) with young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), prior to the development of hypertension in this model. Methods: Using unbiased stereological methods the number and size of glomeruli, as well as total renal filtration surface area were determined in perfusion-fixed kidneys of 4-week-old WKY and SHR. Results: At 4 weeks of age, in weight-matched animals, there was no significant difference in the number of glomeruli in the kidneys of SHR compared to WKY (28,620 ± 1,643 and 25,670 ± 1,263 glomeruli/kidney, respectively). Similarly, there was no difference in mean glomerular volume (SHR: 4.70 ± 0.31 × 10<sup>–4</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>; WKY: 4.28 ± 0.20 × 10<sup>–4</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>). Surprisingly, total renal filtration surface area was significantly greater in SHR than WKY (3,867 ± 116 and 3,176 ± 83 mm<sup>2</sup>, respectively). Conclusion: The renal abnormality underlying the development of hypertension in the SHR is not due to inborn deficits in nephron endowment and/or filtration surface area.

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          The Quantitative Development of Glomerular Capillaries in Rats with Special Reference to Unbiased Stereological Estimates of Their Number and Sizes

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            Blood Pressure and Indices of Glomerular Filtration Area in Hypertensive and Normotensive Prague Rats

            The involvement of the kidney in the pathogenesis of hypertension has long been recognised, although the specific renal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unknown. A current hypothesis attributes hypertension to a reduction in glomerular filtration area by glomerular loss. The present study analyses the relationship between glomerular number and volume and conscious systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 4- to 53-week-old hypertensive (PHR) and normotensive (PNR) rats of the Prague strain. Adult PHRs had higher SBP, were larger and had larger kidneys than PNRs, but 20% fewer glomeruli. A significant negative correlation between SBP and glomerular number was found in PHR males, but not in PHR females or PNRs. There was no correlation at all between glomerular volume and SBP and, in young animals, both SBP and glomerular number were higher in PHRs than in PNRs. In addition, in adult PHRs, glomerular volume and SBP were higher in males than in females. In summary, a generally valid, causal relationship linking raised blood pressure to decreased glomerular number or volume could not be demonstrated in the Prague rat model of genetically determined hypertension. The nature of the renal mechanism(s) determining the hypertension in this model remains unknown.

              Author and article information

              Kidney Blood Press Res
              Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
              S. Karger AG
              06 February 2002
              : 25
              : 1
              : 20-26
              Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Vic., Australia
              49431 Kidney Blood Press Res 2002;25:20–26
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 7
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