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      The interplay between personalities and social interactions affects the cohesion of the group and the speed of aggregation

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          Abstract

          Collective decision-making plays a central role in group-living animals and can be crucial to the survival of a group and the fitness of its members. As group-level properties emerge from individual decisions, personality variation can be a major determinant of collective behaviours. Here, we explore the relationship between personality and social interactions to explain the speed and cohesion of collective decision making during the aggregation process of the American cockroach ( Periplaneta americana). We composed groups solely with shy individuals (spending a long time sheltered) or bold individuals (spending a short time sheltered) and tested them in a binary setup (arena with two shelters) for 3 consecutive days. We analysed the shelter use of individuals and groups to compare behavioural consistency among days and analyse the collective decision-making process. Contrary to the bold groups, shy groups had a faster aggregation process with more individuals sheltered mainly because shy individuals found the shelter more rapidly. Moreover, we show that personality is modulated by social interactions. We show high behavioural plasticity in bold groups, where some individuals act shy. This also suggests that learning and regulation mechanisms may take place. This study sheds some light on the implications of individual personality for collective decision making and the key role of shy individuals in gregarious species, such as P. americana.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Behavioural reaction norms: animal personality meets individual plasticity

          Recent studies in the field of behavioural ecology have revealed intriguing variation in behaviour within single populations. Increasing evidence suggests that individual animals differ in their average level of behaviour displayed across a range of contexts (animal 'personality'), and in their responsiveness to environmental variation (plasticity), and that these phenomena can be considered complementary aspects of the individual phenotype. How should this complex variation be studied? Here, we outline how central ideas in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics can be combined within a single framework based on the concept of 'behavioural reaction norms'. This integrative approach facilitates analysis of phenomena usually studied separately in terms of personality and plasticity, thereby enhancing understanding of their adaptive nature. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Animal personalities: consequences for ecology and evolution.

            Personality differences are a widespread phenomenon throughout the animal kingdom. Past research has focused on the characterization of such differences and a quest for their proximate and ultimate causation. However, the consequences of these differences for ecology and evolution received much less attention. Here, we strive to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive inventory of the potential implications of personality differences, ranging from population growth and persistence to species interactions and community dynamics, and covering issues such as social evolution, the speed of evolution, evolvability, and speciation. The emerging picture strongly suggests that personality differences matter for ecological and evolutionary processes (and their interaction) and, thus, should be considered a key dimension of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The behavioural ecology of personality: consistent individual differences from an adaptive perspective

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Supervision
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                8 August 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Biological and Artificial Self-organised Systems Team—CP 231, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Bruxelles, Belgium
                Arizona State University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-00796
                10.1371/journal.pone.0201053
                6082527
                30089129
                9b060b78-498b-4080-90a8-fbfb0606095a
                © 2018 Planas-Sitjà et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Fonds pour la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA).
                Award Recipient :
                IP-S was funded by a PhD grant from Fonds pour la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Cockroaches
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Collective Human Behavior
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Collective Human Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Decision Making
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Decision Making
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Decision Making
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognition
                Decision Making
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Differences
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Differences
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Network Analysis
                Social Networks
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Social Networks
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data is cited in the paper. Original RFID data files are available in the BioStudies database under accession number S-BSST175 ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/biostudies/studies/S-BSST175).

                Uncategorized

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