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      Using Motor Tempi to Understand Rhythm and Grammatical Skills in Developmental Language Disorder and Typical Language Development

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          Abstract

          Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) show relative weaknesses on rhythm tasks beyond their characteristic linguistic impairments. The current study compares preferred tempo and the width of an entrainment region for 5- to 7-year-old typically developing (TD) children and children with DLD and considers the associations with rhythm aptitude and expressive grammar skills in the two populations. Preferred tempo was measured with a spontaneous motor tempo task (tapping tempo at a comfortable speed), and the width (range) of an entrainment region was measured by the difference between the upper (slow) and lower (fast) limits of tapping a rhythm normalized by an individual’s spontaneous motor tempo. Data from N = 16 children with DLD and N = 114 TD children showed that whereas entrainment-region width did not differ across the two groups, slowest motor tempo, the determinant of the upper (slow) limit of the entrainment region, was at a faster tempo in children with DLD vs. TD. In other words, the DLD group could not pace their slow tapping as slowly as the TD group. Entrainment-region width was positively associated with rhythm aptitude and receptive grammar even after taking into account potential confounding factors, whereas expressive grammar did not show an association with any of the tapping measures. Preferred tempo was not associated with any study variables after including covariates in the analyses. These results motivate future neuroscientific studies of low-frequency neural oscillatory mechanisms as the potential neural correlates of entrainment-region width and their associations with musical rhythm and spoken language processing in children with typical and atypical language development.

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          Research electronic data capture (REDCap)--a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support.

          Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1) a brief description of the REDCap metadata-driven software toolset; (2) detail concerning the capture and use of study-related metadata from scientific research teams; (3) measures of impact for REDCap; (4) details concerning a consortium network of domestic and international institutions collaborating on the project; and (5) strengths and limitations of the REDCap system. REDCap is currently supporting 286 translational research projects in a growing collaborative network including 27 active partner institutions.
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            pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves

            Background Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are useful tools to evaluate classifiers in biomedical and bioinformatics applications. However, conclusions are often reached through inconsistent use or insufficient statistical analysis. To support researchers in their ROC curves analysis we developed pROC, a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface. Results With data previously imported into the R or S+ environment, the pROC package builds ROC curves and includes functions for computing confidence intervals, statistical tests for comparing total or partial area under the curve or the operating points of different classifiers, and methods for smoothing ROC curves. Intermediary and final results are visualised in user-friendly interfaces. A case study based on published clinical and biomarker data shows how to perform a typical ROC analysis with pROC. Conclusions pROC is a package for R and S+ specifically dedicated to ROC analysis. It proposes multiple statistical tests to compare ROC curves, and in particular partial areas under the curve, allowing proper ROC interpretation. pROC is available in two versions: in the R programming language or with a graphical user interface in the S+ statistical software. It is accessible at http://expasy.org/tools/pROC/ under the GNU General Public License. It is also distributed through the CRAN and CSAN public repositories, facilitating its installation.
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              Sensorimotor synchronization: a review of recent research (2006-2012).

              Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external rhythm, ranging from finger tapping in time with a metronome to musical ensemble performance. An earlier review (Repp, 2005) covered tapping studies; two additional reviews (Repp, 2006a, b) focused on music performance and on rate limits of SMS, respectively. The present article supplements and extends these earlier reviews by surveying more recent research in what appears to be a burgeoning field. The article comprises four parts, dealing with (1) conventional tapping studies, (2) other forms of moving in synchrony with external rhythms (including dance and nonhuman animals' synchronization abilities), (3) interpersonal synchronization (including musical ensemble performance), and (4) the neuroscience of SMS. It is evident that much new knowledge about SMS has been acquired in the last 7 years.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101763589
                49272
                Neurobiol Lang (Camb)
                Neurobiol Lang (Camb)
                Neurobiology of language (Cambridge, Mass.)
                2641-4368
                12 February 2023
                2023
                18 January 2023
                02 March 2023
                : 4
                : 1
                : 1-28
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN
                [2 ]Department of Linguistics, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
                [4 ]Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN
                [5 ]Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
                [6 ]Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA
                [7 ]Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
                [8 ]Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO
                [9 ]Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
                [10 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR
                [11 ]Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
                [12 ]Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN
                [13 ]Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN
                Author notes
                [*]

                J. D. M. and R. L. G. have joint senior authorship.

                AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

                Enikő Ladányi: Conceptualization: Lead; Data curation: Lead; Formal analysis: Lead; Investigation: Lead; Methodology: Equal; Visualization: Lead; Writing—original draft: Lead; Writing—review & editing: Lead. Michaela Novakovic: Methodology: Supporting; Software: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting. Olivia A. Boorom: Data curation: Equal; Investigation: Lead; Methodology: Equal; Project administration: Lead; Writing—original draft: Supporting; Writing—review & editing: Supporting. Allison S. Aaron: Investigation: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting; Project administration: Supporting. Alyssa C. Scartozzi: Data curation: Supporting; Formal analysis: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting; Project administration: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting. Daniel E. Gustavson: Formal analysis: Equal; Methodology: Equal; Writing—original draft: Supporting. Rachana Nitin: Data curation: Supporting; Investigation: Supporting; Visualization: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting. Peter O. Bamikole: Investigation: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting. Chloe Vaughan: Investigation: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting; Project administration: Supporting. Elisa Kim Fromboluti: Investigation: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting. C. Melanie Schuele: Conceptualization: Supporting; Funding acquisition: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting; Writing—review & editing: Supporting. Stephen M. Camarata: Conceptualization: Supporting; Funding acquisition: Supporting; Methodology: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting. J. Devin McAuley: Conceptualization: Equal; Formal analysis: Supporting; Funding acquisition: Supporting; Methodology: Equal; Supervision: Equal; Writing—original draft: Supporting; Writing—review & editing: Supporting. Reyna L. Gordon: Conceptualization: Equal; Formal analysis: Supporting; Funding acquisition: Lead; Investigation: Supporting; Methodology: Equal; Project administration: Lead; Software: Supporting; Visualization: Supporting; Writing—original draft: Supporting; Writing—review & editing: Supporting.

                Corresponding Authors: Enikő Ladányi, eniko.ladanyi@ 123456vumc.org , Reyna L. Gordon, reyna.gordon@ 123456vanderbilt.edu
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2853-682X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2138-7609
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4970-7368
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7120-9133
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1703-2423
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1470-4928
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3331-1580
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3381-2254
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5882-7524
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6724-055X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3342-1747
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5848-929X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1643-6979
                Article
                NIHMS1873134
                10.1162/nol_a_00082
                9979588
                36875176
                9b10bfe0-193b-4871-b8a9-45a0ec5b1099

                Massachusetts Institute of Technology Published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license

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                Categories
                Article

                developmental language disorder,entrainment,grammar,neural oscillations,rhythm,tapping

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