11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      First Identification of a Triple Corneal Dystrophy Association: Keratoconus, Epithelial Basement Membrane Corneal Dystrophy and Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose: To report the observation of a triple corneal dystrophy association consisting of keratoconus (KC), epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy (EBMCD) and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods: A 55-year-old male patient was referred to our cornea service for blurred vision and recurrent foreign body sensation. He reported bilateral recurrent corneal erosions with diurnal visual fluctuations. He underwent corneal biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug tomography, in vivo HRT confocal laser scanning microscopy and genetic testing for TGFBI and ZEB1 mutations using direct DNA sequencing. Results: Biomicroscopic examination revealed the presence of subepithelial central and paracentral corneal opacities. The endothelium showed a bilateral flecked appearance, and the posterior corneal curvature suggested a possible concomitant ectatic disorder. Corneal tomography confirmed the presence of a stage II KC in both eyes. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a concomitant bilateral EBMCD with hyperreflective deposits in basal epithelial cells, subbasal Bowman's layer microfolds and ridges with truncated subbasal nerves as pseudodendritic elements. Stromal analysis revealed honeycomb edematous areas, and the endothelium showed a strawberry surface configuration typical of FECD. The genetic analysis resulted negative for TGFBI mutations and positive for a heterozygous mutation in exon 7 of the gene ZEB1. Conclusion: This is the first case reported in the literature in which KC, EBMCD and FECD are present in the same patient and associated with ZEB1 gene mutation. The triple association was previously established by means of morphological analysis of the cornea using corneal Scheimpflug tomography and in vivo HRT II confocal laser scanning microscopy.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 13

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The IC3D classification of the corneal dystrophies.

          The recent availability of genetic analyses has demonstrated the shortcomings of the current phenotypic method of corneal dystrophy classification. Abnormalities in different genes can cause a single phenotype, whereas different defects in a single gene can cause different phenotypes. Some disorders termed corneal dystrophies do not appear to have a genetic basis. The purpose of this study was to develop a new classification system for corneal dystrophies, integrating up-to-date information on phenotypic description, pathologic examination, and genetic analysis. The International Committee for Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) was created to devise a current and accurate nomenclature. This anatomic classification continues to organize dystrophies according to the level chiefly affected. Each dystrophy has a template summarizing genetic, clinical, and pathologic information. A category number from 1 through 4 is assigned, reflecting the level of evidence supporting the existence of a given dystrophy. The most defined dystrophies belong to category 1 (a well-defined corneal dystrophy in which a gene has been mapped and identified and specific mutations are known) and the least defined belong to category 4 (a suspected dystrophy where the clinical and genetic evidence is not yet convincing). The nomenclature may be updated over time as new information regarding the dystrophies becomes available. The IC3D Classification of Corneal Dystrophies is a new classification system that incorporates many aspects of the traditional definitions of corneal dystrophies with new genetic, clinical, and pathologic information. Standardized templates provide key information that includes a level of evidence for there being a corneal dystrophy. The system is user-friendly and upgradeable and can be retrieved on the website www.corneasociety.org/ic3d.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            VSX1: a gene for posterior polymorphous dystrophy and keratoconus.

             E Héon,  Rod Bremner (2002)
            We identified mutations in the VSX1 homeobox gene for two distinct inherited corneal dystrophies; posterior polymorphous dystrophy (PPD) and keratoconus. One of the mutation (R166W) responsible for keratoconus altered the homeodomain and impaired DNA binding. Two other sequence changes (L159M and G160D) were associated with keratoconus and PPD, respectively, and involved a region adjacent to the homeodomain. The G160D substitution, and a fourth defect affecting the highly conserved CVC domain (P247R), occurred in a child with very severe PPD who required a corneal transplant at 3 months of age. In this family, relatives with the G160D change alone had mild to moderate PPD, while P247R alone caused no corneal abnormalities. However, with either the G160D or P247R mutation, electroretinography detected abnormal function of the inner retina, where VSX1 is expressed. These data define the molecular basis of two important corneal dystrophies and reveal the importance of the CVC domain in the human retina.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              VSX1 mutational analysis in a series of Italian patients affected by keratoconus: detection of a novel mutation.

              Keratoconus is a noninflammatory corneal disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in the VSX1 (visual system homeobox 1) gene have been identified for two distinct, inherited corneal dystrophies: posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and keratoconus. To evaluate the possible role of the VSX1 gene in a series of Italian patients, 80 keratoconus-affected subjects were screened for mutations. The diagnosis of keratoconus was made on the basis of clinical examination and corneal topography. The whole coding region and the exon-intron junctions of the VSX1 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. Three already-described changes, D144E, G160D, and P247R, and a novel L17P mutation were found in 7 of 80 unrelated patients (8.7%). Two undescribed intronic polymorphisms are also reported. Mutational analysis of the VSX1 gene in a series of Italian patients revealed one novel mutation and confirmed an important role played by this gene in a significant proportion of patients affected by keratoconus, when it is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2014
                September – December 2014
                17 September 2014
                : 5
                : 3
                : 281-288
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, and bMedical Genetics, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; cDepartment of Ophthalmology, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
                Author notes
                *Cosimo Mazzotta, MD, PhD, Policlinico Le Scotte, U.O.C. Oculistica, Viale Mario Bracci, IT-53100 Siena (Italy), E-Mail cgmazzotta@libero.it
                Article
                367937 PMC4209271 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2014;5:281-288
                10.1159/000367937
                PMC4209271
                25408666
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Published: September 2014

                Comments

                Comment on this article