When drought occurs during the maize-filling period, the probability of yield decline increases. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a regulatory role in physiological and metabolic activities during plant development. However, its effect on the antioxidant system of maize leaves during the grain-filling stage is unclear. Maize plants (Zhengdan958) were used as an experimental material, and ABA was sprayed on the leaves during the grain-filling stage. The plants were placed under drought conditions to analyze the relationship between the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal. Exogenous ABA significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content, relative electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 under drought stress. This is similar to the exogenous ABA effect on the AsA-GSH cycle. Exogenous ABA upregulated the transcription of related genes and alleviated the inhibition of drought stress on the monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, thereby further increasing the ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. It contributed to an increase in the AsA and GSH levels and inhibited the decrease in the AsA/dehydroascorbic acid and GSH/oxidized glutathione ratios. Therefore, exogenous ABA plays an important role in improving the antioxidant capacity and drought resistance physiology of maize by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and stabilizing the AsA and GSH redox state.