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Obesidad y dislipoproteinemia Translated title: Obesity and dyslipoproteinemia

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      Abstract

      En esta revisión se define la obesidad, sus causas generales, cuantificación y distribución corporal. Se hace una revisión general de la bioquímica de las fracciones lipoproteicas de la sangre, así como la forma de realizar el diagnóstico de las dislipoproteinemias. La dislipoproteinemia de la obesidad es una forma secundaria a la resistencia a la insulina y disminución de la actividad de la lipasa lipoproteica, con elevación de los triglicéridos, disminuye el colesterol HDL y se constituye el síndrome metabólico. Se describe su fisiopatología, así como el desarrollo de las morbilidades conexas. Se caracteriza la dislipoproteinemia de la obesidad no solo en condiciones basales sino también en el período posprandial. Se intenta estimar la prevalencia de dislipoproteinemia en la obesidad. Se delinea el tratamiento de la obesidad y de la dislipoproteinemia, considerando el cambio de estilo de vida mediante el régimen alimenticio y la actividad física, la farmacoterapia y la cirugía bariátrica, así como el uso de hipolipemiantes.

      Translated abstract

      The definition, main general causes, quantification and body distribution of obesity are described. A general review of the different blood lipoprotein fractions as well as the procedure for the diagnosis of dyslipoproteinemia is done. Dyslipoproteinemia of obesity is a secondary form of insulin resistance as a result of lowering of lipoprotein lipase activity resulting in increase of triglycerides, decrease of HDL cholesterol,and establishment of the metabolic syndrome. Its pathophysiology and the development of obesity related morbidities are described. Dyslipoproteinemia of obesity is present in both the basal and postprandial status. An attempt is made to estimate the prevalence of dyslipoproteinemia. Treatment is outlined and includes change in lifestyle regarding diet and physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery, as well as the hypolipidemic treatment.

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      Most cited references 39

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      Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects.

      Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors, but no prospective interventional studies have reported whether weight loss decreases overall mortality. In fact, many observational studies suggest that weight reduction is associated with increased mortality. The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study involved 4047 obese subjects. Of these subjects, 2010 underwent bariatric surgery (surgery group) and 2037 received conventional treatment (matched control group). We report on overall mortality during an average of 10.9 years of follow-up. At the time of the analysis (November 1, 2005), vital status was known for all but three subjects (follow-up rate, 99.9%). The average weight change in control subjects was less than +/-2% during the period of up to 15 years during which weights were recorded. Maximum weight losses in the surgical subgroups were observed after 1 to 2 years: gastric bypass, 32%; vertical-banded gastroplasty, 25%; and banding, 20%. After 10 years, the weight losses from baseline were stabilized at 25%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. There were 129 deaths in the control group and 101 deaths in the surgery group. The unadjusted overall hazard ratio was 0.76 in the surgery group (P=0.04), as compared with the control group, and the hazard ratio adjusted for sex, age, and risk factors was 0.71 (P=0.01). The most common causes of death were myocardial infarction (control group, 25 subjects; surgery group, 13 subjects) and cancer (control group, 47; surgery group, 29). Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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        Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity.

        As the prevalence of obesity increases in the United States, concern over the association of body weight with excess mortality has also increased. To estimate deaths associated with underweight (body mass index [BMI] or =30) in the United States in 2000. We estimated relative risks of mortality associated with different levels of BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1975) and NHANES II (1976-1980), with follow-up through 1992, and from NHANES III (1988-1994), with follow-up through 2000. These relative risks were applied to the distribution of BMI and other covariates from NHANES 1999-2002 to estimate attributable fractions and number of excess deaths, adjusted for confounding factors and for effect modification by age. Number of excess deaths in 2000 associated with given BMI levels. Relative to the normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to or =30) was associated with 111,909 excess deaths (95% confidence interval [CI], 53,754-170,064) and underweight with 33,746 excess deaths (95% CI, 15,726-51,766). Overweight was not associated with excess mortality (-86,094 deaths; 95% CI, -161,223 to -10,966). The relative risks of mortality associated with obesity were lower in NHANES II and NHANES III than in NHANES I. Underweight and obesity, particularly higher levels of obesity, were associated with increased mortality relative to the normal weight category. The impact of obesity on mortality may have decreased over time, perhaps because of improvements in public health and medical care. These findings are consistent with the increases in life expectancy in the United States and the declining mortality rates from ischemic heart disease.
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          Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease

           G M Reaven (1988)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Perú
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Journal
            afm
            Anales de la Facultad de Medicina
            An. Fac. med.
            Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina (Lima, , Peru )
            1025-5583
            April 2017
            : 78
            : 2
            : 196-201
            S1025-55832017000200015
            10.15381/anales.v78i2.13217

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 6
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            Product Information: SciELO Peru

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