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      Methylene Blue Absorption in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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          Abstract

          Introduction:

          Chemotherapy is claimed to cause lymphatic drainage damage because of the tumor cell’s apoptosis process. This event might cause decreased marker (radioactive solution and/or blue dye) absorption on sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). In this study, the researchers used methylene blue only and wished to evaluate the methylene blue absorption of the SLNB procedure on early-stage breast-cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).

          Materials and methods:

          The method used was the historical cohort study conducted from 2016-2019 in Indonesia. Samples were collected from 117 patients of stage I and II breast cancer with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, who were then grouped into post-NAC and no-NAC (control group), in which SLNB procedures were conducted on the two groups by using single-method methylene blue. The results of methylene blue absorption were then analyzed by the Chi-square hypothesis test.

          Results:

          From the total of 564 early-stage patients who were referred to surgical oncologists, 117 patients were found to meet criteria of inclusion, consisting of the control group (52 patients) and the post-NAC group (65 patents). Of 65 patients who had undergone NAC treatment and SLNB procedure, it was found that 40 patients (61.5%) showed positive blue SLN. Of 52 pre-NAC breast-cancer patients, it was found that 47 patients (90.4%) showed methylene blue absorption on SLN with the p-value of 0.000 (P<0.05, significant). The relative risk value amounted to 0.522. Post-NAC patients had a tendency of decreased absorption of methylene blue.

          Conclusion:

          Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can cause the decrease of methylene blue absorption on SLNB procedure.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27.

          Experience with sentinel node biopsy (SNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is limited. We examined the feasibility and accuracy of this procedure within a randomized trial in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. During the conduct of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial B-27, several participating surgeons attempted SNB before the required axillary dissection in 428 patients. All underwent lymphatic mapping and an attempt to identify and remove a sentinel node. Lymphatic mapping was performed with radioactive colloid (14.7%), with lymphazurin blue dye alone (29.9%), or with both (54.7%). Success rate for the identification and removal of a sentinel node was 84.8%. Success rate increased significantly with the use of radioisotope (87.6% to 88.9%) versus with the use of lymphazurin alone (78.1%, P = .03). There were no significant differences in success rate according to clinical tumor size, clinical nodal status, age, or calendar year of random assignment. Of 343 patients who had SNB and axillary dissection, the sentinel nodes were positive in 125 patients and were the only positive nodes in 70 patients (56.0%). Of the 218 patients with negative sentinel nodes, nonsentinel nodes were positive in 15 (false-negative rate, 10.7%; 15 of 140 patients). There were no significant differences in false-negative rate according to clinical patient and tumor characteristics, method of lymphatic mapping, or breast tumor response to chemotherapy. These results are comparable to those obtained from multicenter studies evaluating SNB before systemic therapy and suggest that the sentinel node concept is applicable following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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            Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial.

            Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) accurately identifies nodal metastasis of early breast cancer, but it is not clear whether further nodal dissection affects survival. To determine the effects of complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on survival of patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis of breast cancer. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial, a phase 3 noninferiority trial conducted at 115 sites and enrolling patients from May 1999 to December 2004. Patients were women with clinical T1-T2 invasive breast cancer, no palpable adenopathy, and 1 to 2 SLNs containing metastases identified by frozen section, touch preparation, or hematoxylin-eosin staining on permanent section. Targeted enrollment was 1900 women with final analysis after 500 deaths, but the trial closed early because mortality rate was lower than expected. All patients underwent lumpectomy and tangential whole-breast irradiation. Those with SLN metastases identified by SLND were randomized to undergo ALND or no further axillary treatment. Those randomized to ALND underwent dissection of 10 or more nodes. Systemic therapy was at the discretion of the treating physician. Overall survival was the primary end point, with a noninferiority margin of a 1-sided hazard ratio of less than 1.3 indicating that SLND alone is noninferior to ALND. Disease-free survival was a secondary end point. Clinical and tumor characteristics were similar between 445 patients randomized to ALND and 446 randomized to SLND alone. However, the median number of nodes removed was 17 with ALND and 2 with SLND alone. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years (last follow-up, March 4, 2010), 5-year overall survival was 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1%-94.5%) with ALND and 92.5% (95% CI, 90.0%-95.1%) with SLND alone; 5-year disease-free survival was 82.2% (95% CI, 78.3%-86.3%) with ALND and 83.9% (95% CI, 80.2%-87.9%) with SLND alone. The hazard ratio for treatment-related overall survival was 0.79 (90% CI, 0.56-1.11) without adjustment and 0.87 (90% CI, 0.62-1.23) after adjusting for age and adjuvant therapy. Among patients with limited SLN metastatic breast cancer treated with breast conservation and systemic therapy, the use of SLND alone compared with ALND did not result in inferior survival. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003855.
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              Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy in patients with breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (SENTINA): a prospective, multicentre cohort study.

              The optimum timing of sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy is uncertain. The SENTINA (SENTinel NeoAdjuvant) study was designed to evaluate a specific algorithm for timing of a standardised sentinel-lymph-node biopsy procedure in patients who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SENTINA is a four-arm, prospective, multicentre cohort study undertaken at 103 institutions in Germany and Austria. Women with breast cancer who were scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled into the study. Patients with clinically node-negative disease (cN0) underwent sentinel-lymph-node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (arm A). If the sentinel node was positive (pN1), a second sentinel-lymph-node biopsy procedure was done after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (arm B). Women with clinically node-positive disease (cN+) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Those who converted to clinically node-negative disease after chemotherapy (ycN0; arm C) were treated with sentinel-lymph-node biopsy and axillary dissection. Only patients whose clinical nodal status remained positive (ycN1) underwent axillary dissection without sentinel-lymph-node biopsy (arm D). The primary endpoint was accuracy (false-negative rate) of sentinel-lymph-node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients who converted from cN1 to ycN0 disease during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (arm C). Secondary endpoints included comparison of the detection rate of sentinel-lymph-node biopsy before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also the false-negative rate and detection rate of sentinel-lymph-node biopsy after removal of the sentinel lymph node. Analyses were done according to treatment received (per protocol). Of 1737 patients who received treatment, 1022 women underwent sentinel-lymph-node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (arms A and B), with a detection rate of 99.1% (95% CI 98.3-99.6; 1013 of 1022). In patients who converted after neoadjuvant chemotherapy from cN+ to ycN0 (arm C), the detection rate was 80.1% (95% CI 76.6-83.2; 474 of 592) and false-negative rate was 14.2% (95% CI 9.9-19.4; 32 of 226). The false-negative rate was 24.3% (17 of 70) for women who had one node removed and 18.5% (10 of 54) for those who had two sentinel nodes removed (arm C). In patients who had a second sentinel-lymph-node biopsy procedure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (arm B), the detection rate was 60.8% (95% CI 55.6-65.9; 219 of 360) and the false-negative rate was 51.6% (95% CI 38.7-64.2; 33 of 64). Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is a reliable diagnostic method before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After systemic treatment or early sentinel-lymph-node biopsy, the procedure has a lower detection rate and a higher false-negative rate compared with sentinel-lymph-node biopsy done before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These limitations should be considered if biopsy is planned after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Brustkrebs Deutschland, German Society for Senology, German Breast Group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                APJCP
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                1513-7368
                2476-762X
                June 2020
                : 21
                : 6
                : 1767-1771
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia.
                [2 ] Department of Surgery, Oncology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia.
                [3 ] Department of Surgery, Oncology Division, Metropolitan Medical Center Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
                [4 ] Department of Surgery, Digestive Division, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia.
                Author notes
                [* ]For Correspondence: yarsa_surgeon@yahoo.co.id
                Article
                10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.6.1767
                7568880
                32592376

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                slnb, neoadjuvant, chemotherapy

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