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      Oenococcus oeni: Queen of the cellar, nightmare of geneticists

      Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          Genomic analysis of Oenococcus oeni PSU-1 and its relevance to winemaking.

          Oenococcus oeni is an acidophilic member of the Leuconostoc branch of lactic acid bacteria indigenous to wine and similar environments. O. oeni is commonly responsible for the malolactic fermentation in wine and due to its positive contribution is frequently used as a starter culture to promote malolactic fermentation. In collaboration with the Lactic Acid Bacteria Genome Consortium the genome sequence of O. oeni PSU-1 has been determined. The complete genome is 1,780,517 nt with a GC content of 38%. 1701 ORFs could be predicted from the sequence of which 75% were functionally classified. Consistent with its classification as an obligately heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium the PSU-1 genome encodes all the enzymes for the phosphoketolase pathway. Moreover, genes related to flavor modification in wine, such as malolactic fermentation capacity and citrate utilization were readily identified. The completion of the O. oeni genome marks a significant new phase for wine-related research on lactic acid bacteria in which the physiology, genetic diversity and performance of O. oeni starter cultures can be more rigorously examined.
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            Phylogenetic Structure of the “Leuconostocs”: An Interesting Case of a Rapidly Evolving Organism

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              Expanding the diversity of oenococcal bacteriophages: insights into a novel group based on the integrase sequence.

              Temperate bacteriophages are a contributor of the genetic diversity in the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni. We used a classification scheme for oenococcal prophages based on integrase gene polymorphism, to analyze a collection of Oenococcus strains mostly isolated in the area of Bordeaux, which represented the major lineages identified through MLST schemes in the species. Genome sequences of oenococcal prophages were clustered into four integrase groups (A to D) which were related to the chromosomal integration site. The prevalence of each group was determined and we could show that members of the intB- and intC-prophage groups were rare in our panel of strains. Our study focused on the so far uncharacterized members of the intD-group. Various intD viruses could be easily isolated from wine samples, while intD lysogens could be induced to produce phages active against two permissive O. oeni isolates. These data support the role of this prophage group in the biology of O. oeni. Global alignment of three relevant intD-prophages revealed significant conservation and highlighted a number of unique ORFs that may contribute to phage and lysogen fitness. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                1350-0872
                1465-2080
                March 01 2017
                March 01 2017
                : 163
                : 3
                : 297-299
                Article
                10.1099/mic.0.000456
                © 2017

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