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      The Impact of COPD on in-Hospital Outcomes in Patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a known comorbidity of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), and COPD exacerbation is a potential triggering factor of TCM. The association between COPD and in-hospital outcomes and complications among TCM patients is not well established. We sought to assess the effect of COPD on hospitalized patients with a primary diagnosis of TCM.


          We conducted a retrospective cohort study in patients with a primary diagnosis of TCM with or without COPD using the latest National Inpatient Sample from 2016–2017. We identified 3139 patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of TCM by the ICD-10-CM coding system; 684 of those patients also had a diagnosis of COPD. We performed propensity score matching in a 1:2 ratio (n=678 patients, matched COPD group; n=1070, matched non-COPD group) and compared in-hospital outcomes and complications between TCM patients with and without a COPD diagnosis.


          Before matching, the COPD group had worse outcomes compared with the non-COPD group in inpatient death (2.9% vs 1.3%, p=0.006), length of stay (LOS) (4.02±2.99 days vs 3.27±3.39 days, p<0.001), hospitalization charges ($55,242.68±47,637.40 vs $48,316.97±47,939.84, p=0.001), and acute respiratory failure (ARF) (22.5% vs 7.7%, p<0.001), respectively. After propensity score matching, the matched COPD group, compared with the matched non-COPD group, had a higher inpatient mortality rate (2.9% vs1.0%, p=0.005), longer LOS (4.02±3.00 days vs 3.40±3.54 days, p<0.001), higher hospitalization charges ($55,409.23±47,809.13 vs $46,469.60±42,209.10, p<0.001), and a higher incidence of ARF (22.6% vs 8.2%, p<0.001) and cardiogenic shock (5.6% vs 3.3%, p=0.024), respectively.


          Patients with COPD who are hospitalized for TCM have higher rates of inpatient mortality, ARF, cardiogenic shock, as well as a longer LOS, and higher charges of stay than those without COPD. Prospective studies are warranted to examine the effect of early intervention or treatment of COPD on short- and long-term outcomes of TCM.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Burden and clinical features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality and represents a substantial economic and social burden throughout the world. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and further increases in its prevalence and mortality are expected in the coming decades. The substantial morbidity associated with COPD is often underestimated by health-care providers and patients; likewise, COPD is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. COPD develops earlier in life than is usually believed. Tobacco smoking is by far the major risk for COPD and the prevalence of the disease in different countries is related to rates of smoking and time of introduction of cigarette smoking. Contribution of occupational risk factors is quite small, but may vary depending on a country's level of economic development. Severe deficiency for alpha-1-antitrypsin is rare and the impact of other genetic factors on the prevalence of COPD has not been established. COPD should be considered in any patient presenting with cough, sputum production, or dyspnoea, especially if an exposure to risk factors for the disease has been present. Clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed by standardised spirometric tests in the presence of not-fully-reversible airflow limitation. COPD is generally a progressive disease. Continued exposure to noxious agents promotes a more rapid decline in lung function and increases the risk for repeated exacerbations. Smoking cessation is the only intervention shown to slow the decline. If exposure is stopped, the disease may still progress due to the decline in lung function that normally occurs with aging, and some persistence of the inflammatory response.
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            Prognostic score-based balance measures can be a useful diagnostic for propensity score methods in comparative effectiveness research.

            Examining covariate balance is the prescribed method for determining the degree to which propensity score methods should be successful at reducing bias. This study assessed the performance of various balance measures, including a proposed balance measure based on the prognostic score (similar to a disease risk score), to determine which balance measures best correlate with bias in the treatment effect estimate. The correlations of multiple common balance measures with bias in the treatment effect estimate produced by weighting by the odds, subclassification on the propensity score, and full matching on the propensity score were calculated. Simulated data were used, based on realistic data settings. Settings included both continuous and binary covariates and continuous covariates only. The absolute standardized mean difference (ASMD) in prognostic scores, the mean ASMD (in covariates), and the mean t-statistic all had high correlations with bias in the effect estimate. Overall, prognostic scores displayed the highest correlations with bias of all the balance measures considered. Prognostic score measure performance was generally not affected by model misspecification, and the prognostic score measure performed well under a variety of scenarios. Researchers should consider using prognostic score-based balance measures for assessing the performance of propensity score methods for reducing bias in nonexperimental studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Prevalence and Prognostic Impact of Diabetes in Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights From the International, Multicenter GEIST Registry.

              In view of low prevalence rates, diabetes is discussed as a protective factor for the occurrence of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Furthermore, it was associated with improved outcome in a small single-center analysis. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence and prognostic relevance of concomitant diabetes in TTS.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                29 September 2020
                : 15
                : 2333-2341
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital , Worcester, MA 01608, USA
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College , Shantou, Guangdong, 515041, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Yale New Haven Health-Greenwich Hospital , Greenwich, CT 06830, USA
                [4 ]Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute , Worcester, MA 01609, USA
                [5 ]Division of Cardiology, Saint Vincent Hospital , Worcester, MA 01608, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bin Wang Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College , 57 Changping Road, Shantou, Guangdong515041, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-75488905399Fax +86 75488259850 Email

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2020 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 37, Pages: 9
                Original Research


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