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      Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in different etiological causes of thyrotoxicosis

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          Abstract

          Background/aim

          The most common causes of thyrotoxicosis include Graves’ disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG), toxic adenoma (TA), and subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SAT). In our study, we aimed to see whether neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet‐to‐lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV) may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

          Materials and methods

          We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of the Endocrinology Clinic of our hospital between 2016 and 2019. We included data from 66 GD, 37 TA, and 35 SAT patients. We compared the data with those of 35 healthy subjects as controls.

          Results

          NLR, MLR, and PLR were found to be higher in the SAT group when compared to other groups. The post hoc analysis of comparison of NLR, MLR, and PLR in each group showed that NLR and PLR were significantly different in the SAT group when compared to the GD, TA, and controls groups (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001 for NLR respectively and P < 0.001 for PLR in all groups). MPV levels were different between groups (P = 0.007). However, the intergroup analysis (Tukey’s test) failed to show a statistically significant difference for any of the groups. In patients with SAT, PLR and NLR were significantly higher than in the GD, TA, and control groups. MLR was also higher in SAT when compared to other groups, but the difference was not statistically significant.

          Conclusion

          High PLR and NLR may be helpful to differentiate SAT from GD and TA, the other common causes of thyrotoxicosis.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and cardiovascular diseases: a review.

          The role of inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases has been studied extensively and a consistent relationship between various inflammatory markers and cardiovascular diseases has been established in the past. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new addition to the long list of these inflammatory markers. NLR, which is calculated from complete blood count with differential, is an inexpensive, easy to obtain, widely available marker of inflammation, which can aid in the risk stratification of patients with various cardiovascular diseases in addition to the traditionally used markers. It has been associated with arterial stiffness and high coronary calcium score, which are themselves significant markers of cardiovascular disease. NLR is reported as an independent predictor of outcome in stable coronary artery disease, as well as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. It is linked with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and higher long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI irrespective of indications of PCI. In patients admitted with advanced heart failure, high NLR was reported with higher inpatient mortality. Recently, NLR has been reported as a prognostic marker for outcome from coronary artery bypass grafting and postcoronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation.
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            Current perspective on the pathogenesis of Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy.

            Graves' disease (GD) is a very common autoimmune disorder of the thyroid in which stimulatory antibodies bind to the thyrotropin receptor and activate glandular function, resulting in hyperthyroidism. In addition, some patients with GD develop localized manifestations including ophthalmopathy (GO) and dermopathy. Since the cloning of the receptor cDNA, significant progress has been made in understanding the structure-function relationship of the receptor, which has been discussed in a number of earlier reviews. In this paper, we have focused our discussion on studies related to the molecular mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis and the development of animal models for GD. It has become apparent that multiple factors contribute to the etiology of GD, including host genetic as well as environmental factors. Studies in experimental animals indicate that GD is a slowly progressing disease that involves activation and recruitment of thyrotropin receptor-specific T and B cells. This activation eventually results in the production of stimulatory antibodies that can cause hyperthyroidism. Similarly, significant new insights have been gained in our understanding of GO that occurs in a subset of patients with GD. As in GD, both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in the development of GO. Although a number of putative ocular autoantigens have been identified, their role in the pathogenesis of GO awaits confirmation. Extensive analyses of orbital tissues obtained from patients with GO have provided a clearer understanding of the roles of T and B cells, cytokines and chemokines, and various ocular tissues including ocular muscles and fibroblasts. Equally impressive is the progress made in understanding why connective tissues of the orbit and the skin in GO are singled out for activation and undergo extensive remodeling. Results to date indicate that fibroblasts can act as sentinel cells and initiate lymphocyte recruitment and tissue remodeling. Moreover, these fibroblasts can be readily activated by Ig in the sera of patients with GD, suggesting a central role for them in the pathogenesis. Collectively, recent studies have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GD and GO and have opened up potential new avenues for developing novel treatments for GD and GO.
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              Clinical features and outcome of subacute thyroiditis in an incidence cohort: Olmsted County, Minnesota, study.

              Subacute thyroiditis (SAT), or granulomatous thyroiditis, is an inflammatory thyroid condition associated with pain and systemic symptoms. Few community studies are available. We studied the 160 patients with SAT in Olmsted County, Minnesota, seen between January 1, 1960, and December 30, 1997. Subjects were identified through the medical diagnostic index of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence from 1960 through 1997 was 4.9 cases per 100,000/yr. In the most recent 28-yr period (1970-1997), 94 patients were identified. In this group, pain was the presenting symptom in 96%. SAT recurred in 4% of the patients 6-21 yr after the initial episode. Corticosteroid therapy was given to 36%. Early-onset hypothyroidism occurred both in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy (29%) and in those not receiving corticosteroid therapy (37%). At latest follow-up, significantly more patients who had received corticosteroid therapy had a diagnosis of hypothyroidism than the group without corticosteroid therapy (25% vs. 10%, P < 0.05; overall rate of hypothyroidism, 15%). Early transient hypothyroidism is common in SAT. Permanent hypothyroidism is less common, and only 15% of the patients are receiving T(4) therapy after 28 yr of follow-up. Symptomatic relief is achieved with corticosteroid therapy, but such therapy does not prevent early- and late-onset thyroid dysfunction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Turk J Med Sci
                Turk J Med Sci
                Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
                The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
                1300-0144
                1303-6165
                2019
                16 December 2019
                : 49
                : 6
                : 1687-1692
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara Turkey
                [2 ] Department of Geriatrics, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara Turkey
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mehlikaisildak@ 123456gmail.com

                CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

                none declared

                Article
                10.3906/sag-1901-116
                7518686
                31655515
                Copyright © 2019 The Author(s)

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Article

                thyrotoxicosis, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, ratio

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