Binoy Appukuttan * , Trevor J. McFarland , Andrew Stempel , Jean B. Kassem , Matthew Hartzell , Yi Zhang , Derek Bond , Kelsey West , Reid Wilson , Andrew Stout , Yuzhen Pan , Hoda Ilias , Kathryn Robertson , Michael L. Klein , David Wilson , Justine R. Smith , J. Timothy Stout
22 June 2012
Increased cellular production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is responsible for the development and progression of multiple cancers and other neovascular conditions, and therapies targeting post-translational VEGF products are used in the treatment of these diseases. Development of methods to control and modify the transcription of the VEGF gene is an alternative approach that may have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that isoforms of the transcriptional enhancer factor 1-related (TEAD4) protein can enhance the production of VEGF. In this study we describe a new TEAD4 isoform, TEAD4 216, which represses VEGF promoter activity. The TEAD4 216 isoform inhibits human VEGF promoter activity and does not require the presence of the hypoxia responsive element (HRE), which is the sequence critical to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated effects. The TEAD4 216 protein is localized to the cytoplasm, whereas the enhancer isoforms are found within the nucleus. The TEAD4 216 isoform can competitively repress the stimulatory activity of the TEAD4 434 and TEAD4 148 enhancers. Synthesis of the native VEGF 165 protein and cellular proliferation is suppressed by the TEAD4 216 isoform. Mutational analysis indicates that nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of any isoform determines whether it acts as an enhancer or repressor, respectively. The TEAD4 216 isoform appears to inhibit VEGF production independently of the HRE required activity by HIF, suggesting that this alternatively spliced isoform of TEAD4 may provide a novel approach to treat VEGF-dependent diseases.