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      Melatonin and Ischemic Stroke: Mechanistic Roles and Action

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          Abstract

          Stroke is one of the most devastating neurological disabilities and brain's vulnerability towards it proves to be fatal and socio-economic loss of millions of people worldwide. Ischemic stroke remains at the center stage of it, because of its prevalence amongst the several other types attacking the brain. The various cascades of events that have been associated with stroke involve oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, upregulation of Ca 2+ level, and so forth. Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by pineal and extra pineal tissues responsible for various physiological processes like sleep and mood behaviour. Melatonin has been implicated in various neurological diseases because of its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously reviewed the neuroprotective effect of melatonin in various models of brain injury like traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In this review, we have put together the various causes and consequence of stroke and protective role of melatonin in ischemic stroke.

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          The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation

          Immunity and inflammation are key elements of the pathobiology of stroke, a devastating illness second only to cardiac ischemia as a cause of death worldwide. While the immune system participates in the brain damage produced by ischemia, the damaged brain, in turn, exerts a powerful immunosuppressive effect that promotes fatal intercurrent infections and threatens the survival of stroke patients. Inflammatory signaling is instrumental in all stages of the ischemic cascade, from the early damaging events triggered by arterial occlusion, to the late regenerative processes underlying post-ischemic tissue repair. Recent developments have revealed that stroke, like multiple sclerosis, engages both innate and adaptive immunity. But, unlike multiple sclerosis, adaptive immunity triggered by newly exposed brain antigens does not have an impact on the acute phase of the damage. Nevertheless, modulation of adaptive immunity exerts a remarkable protective effect on the ischemic brain and offers the prospect of new stroke therapies. However, immunomodulation is not devoid of deleterious side effects, and gaining a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between the immune system and the ischemic brain is essential to harness the full therapeutic potential of the immunology of stroke.
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            The science of stroke: mechanisms in search of treatments.

            This review focuses on mechanisms and emerging concepts that drive the science of stroke in a therapeutic direction. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, growing evidence has led to the realization that the biological processes underlying stroke are driven by the interaction of neurons, glia, vascular cells, and matrix components, which actively participate in mechanisms of tissue injury and repair. As new targets are identified, new opportunities emerge that build on an appreciation of acute cellular events acting in a broader context of ongoing destructive, protective, and reparative processes. The burden of disease is great, and its magnitude widens as a role for blood vessels and stroke in vascular and nonvascular dementias becomes more clearly established. This review then poses a number of fundamental questions, the answers to which may generate new directions for research and possibly new treatments that could reduce the impact of this enormous economic and societal burden.
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              Microglia/macrophage polarization dynamics reveal novel mechanism of injury expansion after focal cerebral ischemia.

              Mononuclear phagocytes are highly plastic cells that assume diverse phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. The phenotype-specific roles of microglia/macrophages in ischemic brain injury are poorly understood. A comprehensive characterization of microglia/macrophage polarization after ischemia may advance our knowledge of poststroke damage/recovery. Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced in mice for 60 minutes; animals were euthanized at 1 to 14 days of reperfusion. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining for M1 and M2 markers were performed to characterize phenotypic changes in brain cells, including microglia and infiltrating macrophages. In vitro experiments using a transwell system, a conditioned medium transfer system, or a coculture system allowing cell-to-cell contacts were used to further elucidate the effect of neuronal ischemia on microglia/macrophage polarization and, conversely, the effect of microglia/macrophage phenotype on the fate of ischemic neurons. Local microglia and newly recruited macrophages assume the M2 phenotype at early stages of ischemic stroke but gradually transformed into the M1 phenotype in peri-infarct regions. In vitro experiments revealed that ischemic neurons prime microglial polarization toward M1 phenotype. M1-polarized microglia or M1-conditioned media exacerbated oxygen glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death. In contrast, maintaining the M2 phenotype of microglia protected neurons against oxygen glucose deprivation. Our results suggest that microglia/macrophages respond dynamically to ischemic injury, experiencing an early "healthy" M2 phenotype, followed by a transition to a "sick" M1 phenotype. These dual and opposing roles of microglia/macrophages suggest that stroke therapies should be shifted from simply suppressing microglia/macrophage toward adjusting the balance between beneficial and detrimental microglia/macrophage responses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Adv Pharmacol Sci
                Adv Pharmacol Sci
                APS
                Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-6334
                1687-6342
                2015
                7 September 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062, India
                2Department of Biochemistry, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ivar von Kugelgen

                10.1155/2015/384750
                4575994
                Copyright © 2015 Syed Suhail Andrabi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

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