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      Thyme/garlic essential oils loaded chitosan–alginate nanocomposite: Characterization and antibacterial activities

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 4
      e-Polymers
      Walter de Gruyter GmbH

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          Abstract

          For controlling pathogenic bacteria using nanopolymer composites with essential oils, the formulation of chitosan/alginate nanocomposites (CS/ALG NCs) loaded with thyme oil, garlic oil, and thyme/garlic oil was investigated. Oils were encapsulated in CS/ALG NCs through oil-in-water emulsification and ionic gelation. The CS/ALG NCs loaded with oils of garlic, thyme, and garlic–thyme complex had mean diameters of 143.8, 173.9, and 203.4 nm, respectively. They had spherical, smooth surfaces, and zeta potential of +28.4 mV for thyme–garlic-loaded CS/ALG NCs. The bactericidal efficacy of loaded NCs with mixed oils outperformed individual loaded oils and ampicillin, against foodborne pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible (with 28.7 mm inhibition zone and 12.5 µg·mL −1 bactericidal concentration), whereas Escherichia coli was the most resistant (17.5 µg·mL −1 bactericidal concentration). Scanning electron microscopy images of bacteria treated with NCs revealed strong disruptive effects on S. aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila cells; treated cells were totally exploded or lysed within 8 h. These environmentally friendly nanosystems might be a viable alternative to synthetic preservatives and be of interest in terms of health and food safety.

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          Most cited references53

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          Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects

          Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules. The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area.
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            Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities

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              Outer membrane permeability and antibiotic resistance.

              To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                e-Polymers
                Walter de Gruyter GmbH
                1618-7229
                December 13 2022
                December 13 2022
                January 01 2022
                December 13 2022
                December 13 2022
                January 01 2022
                : 22
                : 1
                : 997-1006
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Fish Processing and Biotechnology, Faculty of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, Kafrelsheikh University , Kafrelsheikh 33516 , Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, University of Sadat City (USC) , El-Sadat City 32897 , Egypt
                [3 ]Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University , Jeddah , Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, University of Sadat City (USC) , El-Sadat City 32897 , Egypt
                Article
                10.1515/epoly-2022-0090
                9b6d1401-5e06-41ac-a2e6-3536b803bc39
                © 2022

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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