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      Micromelanconis kaihuiae gen. et sp. nov., a new diaporthalean fungus from Chinese chestnut branches in southern China

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          Melanconis -like fungi are distributed in several families of Diaporthales , mainly Juglanconidaceae , Melanconidaceae , Melanconiellaceae and Pseudomelanconidaceae . A new Melanconis -like genus of Pseudomelanconidaceae was discovered on branches of Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) in southern China, which was confirmed by both morphology and phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, LSU, tef1a and rpb2 sequences. The new genus Micromelanconis is characterized by two types of conidia from natural substrate and manual media of PDA, respectively. Conidia from Chinese chestnut branches are pale brown, ellipsoid, multiguttulate, aseptate with hyaline sheath. While conidia from PDA plates are pale brown, long dumbbell-shaped, narrow at the middle and wide at both ends, multiguttulate, aseptate, and also with hyaline sheath. All Pseudomelanconidaceae species were only reported on tree branches in China until now. More interesting taxa may be discovered if detailed surveys on tree-inhabiting fungi are carried out in East Asia in the future.

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

            MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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              Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.

              Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1alpha and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to "F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense" with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1alpha and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                16 April 2021
                : 79
                : 1-16
                [1 ] The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China Beijing Forestry University Beijing China
                [2 ] Forestry Biotechnology Hunan Key Laboratories, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China Central South University of Forestry and Technology Changsha China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Cheng-Ming Tian ( chengmt@ 123456bjfu.edu.cn )

                Academic editor: A.K. Gautam

                Ning Jiang, Qin Yang, Xin-Lei Fan, Cheng-Ming Tian

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 501100001809 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809
                Research Article


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