Melanconis -like fungi are distributed in several families of Diaporthales , mainly Juglanconidaceae , Melanconidaceae , Melanconiellaceae and Pseudomelanconidaceae . A new Melanconis -like genus of Pseudomelanconidaceae was discovered on branches of Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) in southern China, which was confirmed by both morphology and phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, LSU, tef1a and rpb2 sequences. The new genus Micromelanconis is characterized by two types of conidia from natural substrate and manual media of PDA, respectively. Conidia from Chinese chestnut branches are pale brown, ellipsoid, multiguttulate, aseptate with hyaline sheath. While conidia from PDA plates are pale brown, long dumbbell-shaped, narrow at the middle and wide at both ends, multiguttulate, aseptate, and also with hyaline sheath. All Pseudomelanconidaceae species were only reported on tree branches in China until now. More interesting taxa may be discovered if detailed surveys on tree-inhabiting fungi are carried out in East Asia in the future.