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      Renalase Gene Polymorphism in Patients After Renal Allograft Transplantation

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          Background/Aims: Renalase is a recently discovered protein, which is likely involved in regulation of blood pressure in humans and animals. Previous studies suggest that renalase reflects kidney functioning. A common missense polymorphism in the flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain of human renalase (Glu37Asp) has been described. In this study we examined the association between (Glu37Asp) polymorphism (rs2296545) in renalase gene and kidney allograft function. Methods: The study enrolled 270 Caucasian kidney allograft recipients. SNP within the renalase was genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. Results: There were no statistically significant associations between renalase gene rs2296545 polymorphism and delayed graft function, acute rejection, chronic allograft dysfunction as well as creatinine serum concentrations and blood pressure values after transplantation. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest, that renalase gene rs2296545 polymorphism is not important factor determining renal allograft function.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Renalase is a novel, soluble monoamine oxidase that regulates cardiac function and blood pressure.

          The kidney not only regulates fluid and electrolyte balance but also functions as an endocrine organ. For instance, it is the major source of circulating erythropoietin and renin. Despite currently available therapies, there is a marked increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. We hypothesized that the current understanding of the endocrine function of the kidney was incomplete and that the organ might secrete additional proteins with important biological roles. Here we report the identification of a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase (renalase) that is secreted into the blood by the kidney and metabolizes catecholamines in vitro (renalase metabolizes dopamine most efficiently, followed by epinephrine, and then norepinephrine). In humans, renalase gene expression is highest in the kidney but is also detectable in the heart, skeletal muscle, and the small intestine. The plasma concentration of renalase is markedly reduced in patients with end-stage renal disease, as compared with healthy subjects. Renalase infusion in rats caused a decrease in cardiac contractility, heart rate, and blood pressure and prevented a compensatory increase in peripheral vascular tone. These results identify renalase as what we believe to be a novel amine oxidase that is secreted by the kidney, circulates in blood, and modulates cardiac function and systemic blood pressure.
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            New-onset diabetes after transplantation: 2003 International consensus guidelines. Proceedings of an international expert panel meeting. Barcelona, Spain, 19 February 2003.

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              Catecholamines regulate the activity, secretion, and synthesis of renalase.

              We previously identified renalase, a secreted novel amine oxidase that specifically degrades circulating catecholamines. Parenteral administration of either native or recombinant renalase lowers blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac contractility by metabolizing circulating catecholamines. Renalase plasma levels are markedly reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is not known whether endogenous renalase contributes to the regulation of catecholamines. We show here that circulating renalase lacks significant amine oxidase activity under basal conditions (prorenalase) but that a brief surge of epinephrine lasting 5 mm Hg. The catecholamine surge also leads to a 2.8-fold increase in plasma renalase concentration. Cultured cells exposed to dopamine upregulate steady-state renalase gene expression by >10-fold. The time course of prorenalase activation is abnormal in rats with chronic kidney disease. These data identify a novel mechanism for the regulation of circulating catecholamines. In the renalase pathway, excess catecholamine facilitates the conversion of prorenalase, an inactive plasma amine oxidase, to renalase, which can degrade catecholamines. Excess catecholamines not only regulate the activation of prorenalase but also promote its secretion and synthesis. Because chronic kidney disease is associated with a number of systemic abnormalities, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, increased catecholamines levels, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension, renalase replacement is an attractive therapeutic modality owing to its role in catecholamine metabolism.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                July 2014
                03 June 2014
                : 39
                : 1
                : 58-64
                aDepartment of Pharmacology; bDepartment of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine; cDepartment of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
                Author notes
                *Andrzej Pawlik MD, PhD, Department of Pharmacology, Powst. Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland), Tel. +48 914661606, Fax +48 914661600, E-Mail
                355777 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:58-64
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (, applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renalase, Polymorphism, Kidney


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