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      Role of PAR2 in regulating oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain via TRPA1


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          Oxaliplatin (OXL) is a third-generation chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat metastatic digestive tumors; however, one of the main limiting complications of OXL is neuropathic pain. In this study, the underlying mechanisms responsible for OXL evoked-neuropathic pain were examined. Using a rat model, the results demonstrated that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OXL significantly increased mechanical pain and cold sensitivity as compared with control animals ( P < 0.05 vs. control rats). Blocking proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) significantly attenuated mechanical pain and cold sensitivity observed in control rats and OXL rats ( P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control). The attenuating effect of PAR2 on mechanical pain and cold sensitivity were significantly smaller in OXL-rats than in control rats. The role played by PAR2 downstream signaling pathways [namely, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)] in regulating OXL evoked-neuropathic pain was also examined. The data shows that TRPA1 expression was upregulated in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of OXL rats and blocking TRPA1 inhibited mechanical pain and heightened cold sensitivity ( P < 0.05 vs. control rats). Blocking PAR2 also significantly decreased TRPA1 expression in the DRG. Findings in this study show that OXL intervention amplifies mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity and PAR2 plays an important role in regulating OXL-induced neuropathic pain via TRPA1 pathways.

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          Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

          Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.
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            ANKTM1, a TRP-like channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, is activated by cold temperatures.

            Mammals detect temperature with specialized neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Four TRPV-class channels have been implicated in sensing heat, and one TRPM-class channel in sensing cold. The combined range of temperatures that activate these channels covers a majority of the relevant physiological spectrum sensed by most mammals, with a significant gap in the noxious cold range. Here, we describe the characterization of ANKTM1, a cold-activated channel with a lower activation temperature compared to the cold and menthol receptor, TRPM8. ANKTM1 is a distant family member of TRP channels with very little amino acid similarity to TRPM8. It is found in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it is coexpressed with TRPV1/VR1 (the capsaicin/heat receptor) but not TRPM8. Consistent with the expression of ANKTM1, we identify noxious cold-sensitive sensory neurons that also respond to capsaicin but not to menthol.
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              Transient receptor potential A1 is a sensory receptor for multiple products of oxidative stress.

              Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it acts as a sensor for environmental irritants, including acrolein, and some pungent plant ingredients such as allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde. These exogenous compounds activate TRPA1 by covalent modification of cysteine residues. We have used electrophysiological methods and measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) to show that TRPA1 is activated by several classes of endogenous thiol-reactive molecules. TRPA1 was activated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); EC(50), 230 microM), by endogenously occurring alkenyl aldehydes (EC(50): 4-hydroxynonenal 19.9 microM, 4-oxo-nonenal 1.9 microM, 4-hydroxyhexenal 38.9 microM) and by the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2), EC(50): 5.6 microM). The effect of H(2)O(2) was reversed by treatment with dithiothreitol indicating that H(2)O(2) acts by promoting the formation of disulfide bonds whereas the actions of the alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) were not reversed, suggesting that these agents form Michael adducts. H(2)O(2) and the naturally occurring alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) acted on a subset of isolated rat and mouse sensory neurons [approximately 25% of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and approximately 50% of nodose ganglion neurons] to evoke a depolarizing inward current and an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in TRPA1 expressing neurons. The abilities of H(2)O(2), alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) to raise [Ca(2+)](i) in mouse DRG neurons were greatly reduced in neurons from trpa1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of either H(2)O(2) or 15d-PGJ2 evoked a nocifensive/pain response in wild-type mice, but not in trpa1(-/-) mice. These data demonstrate that multiple agents produced during episodes of oxidative stress can activate TRPA1 expressed in sensory neurons.

                Author and article information

                Transl Neurosci
                Transl Neurosci
                Translational Neuroscience
                De Gruyter Open
                18 March 2015
                : 6
                : 1
                : 111-116
                Department of Pain Medicine Weifang People’s Hospital Weifang City, Shandong Province 261041, China
                Author notes
                © 2015 Liujun Tian et al. licensee De Gruyter Open.

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License.

                : 27 January 2015
                : 02 March 2015
                Research Article

                oxaliplatin,neuropathic pain,proteinase-activated receptor 2 (par2),transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (trpa1)


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