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      Factors associated with prelacteal feeding practices in Debre Berhan district, North Shoa, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional, community-based study


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          Prelacteal feeding is one of the major harmful newborn feeding practices and is top on the list of global public health concerns. The practice deprives newborns of valuable nutrients and protection of colostrum and exposes them to preventable morbidity and mortality. Studying the prevalence and factors influencing the prelacteal feeding practice of mothers will help program managers and implementers to properly address broad major public health problems. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of prelacteal feeding practices and its associated factors among mother-infant dyads in the Debre Berhan district of North Shoa administrative zone, central Ethiopia.


          A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from January through to April 2014 among 634 mother-infant dyads. The data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.1. (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia). All statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) research IBM version 20.0. The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was determined using the ‘recall since birth’ method. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis was employed to control confounders in determining the association between prelacteal feeding practices and selected independent variables. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and P < 0.05 was used to claim statistical significance.


          The prevalence of prelacteal feeding practice was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.00–17.00%). Slightly greater than half, 48 (53.3%) of prelacteal fed newborns were given butter. Home delivery was a major risk factor for practicing prelacteal feeding. Mothers who delivered their indexed infant at home practiced prelacteal feeding over four folds more than mothers who delivered in a health institution (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 4.70; 95% CI: 2.56–8.60, p-value = 0.001). Mothers who did not initiate breastfeeding within an hour were six times more likely to practice prelacteal feeding (AOR 5.58; 3.21–9.46, p-value = 0.001). Similarly, with regards to the occupation of mothers, farmers practiced prelacteal feedings (AOR 4.33; 95% CI: 1.73–10.81, p-value = 0.002) up to four folds more than their counterpart housewives. Mothers who can read and write are 54% less likely to practice prelacteal feeding than their counterpart, illiterate mothers, with (AOR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22–0.98, p-value = 0.044).


          In the Debre Berhan town of North Shoa administrative zone, central Ethiopia, almost one-sixth of mothers practiced prelacteal feeding. Therefore, improving access to information about appropriate newborn feeding practices, encouraging mothers to deliver their babies in health institutions and inspiring them to initiate breastfeeding within an hour of birth is recommended.

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          Prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in Raya Kobo district, North Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

          Background The harmful infant feeding practices of prelacteal feeding is widely practiced in Ethiopia. Hence, it is vital to appreciate the cultural basis and potential factors on infant feeding practices in different parts of Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in Raya Kobo district, North Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A quantitative community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative methods was employed. Sixty hundred thirty (630) mothers of children aged less than 24 months were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were employed to identify the factors associated with prelacteal feeding practices. Variables with a p-value < 0.05 were identified as statistically significant factors. Qualitative data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth interview and analyzed using thematic frameworks. Results The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was 38.8% (95% CI: 35.00%, 43.00%). Home delivery was a risk factor for practicing prelacteal feeding. Those mothers who gave birth at home were seven times more likely to practice prelacteal feeding as compared to mothers who delivered at health institutions (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR):7.10; 95% CI: 3.91, 12.98). Mothers who were not aware of the risks associated with prelacteal feeding were nearly four times more likely to practice prelacteal feeding as compared to knowledgeable mothers (AOR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.44, 5.53). Late initiation of breastfeeding (after one hour of delivery) was also associated with prelacteal feeding practice (AOR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.99). The major reasons stated for providing prelacteal feeding were to prevent “evil eye” and illness and to “clean infant’s stomach”. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding was commonly practiced in Raya Kobo district. Home delivery, delayed commencement of breastfeeding after birth and lack of awareness about the risks associated with prelacteal feeding were predictors of prelacteal feeding. Therefore, strengthening infant feeding counseling about the risks associated with prelacteal feeding, promoting institutional delivery and timely initiation of breastfeeding are important measures for preventing prelacteal feeding in Raya Kobo district.
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            Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices in Debre Berhan District, Central Ethiopia: a cross sectional community based study

            Background Globally, an estimated 6.3 million children under-five years of age died in the year 2013. To reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality of infants, Ethiopia adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with EBF practices among mothers who have an infant aged below 12 months in Debre Berhan District, Ethiopia. Methods In this study we employed a cross sectional community based quantitative survey method, and data were collected from January through April 2014. Univariate statistical analysis was used to describe variables using frequencies and percentages. Multivariable logistic regression model was developed; the factors associated with EBF practice were identified. Result We enrolled 634 mothers with their index infant aged under 12 months. Four hundred thirty five (68.6 %; 95 % CI: 64.9 %, 72.2 %) mothers practiced EBF to six months. In this study 83.4 % of mothers were knowledgeable with the recommended duration of EBF. About 97.5 % of mothers had a positive attitude towards EBF practice. Mothers from rural places were 4.54 times likely to EBF than mothers residing in urban areas Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 4.54; 95 % CI: 2.64, 7.81, p = 0.001). The odds of mothers aged 25 to 35 years to practice EBF was up to 8.9 times more than mothers aged less than 25 years (AOR 8.99; 95 % CI: 4.56, 17.73, p = 0.001). The odds of mothers who didn’t receive infant feeding counselling was 0.42 times less likely to practice EBF than those who received Counselling services (AOR 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.73, p = 0.002). Employed mothers were found to be 0.36 times less likely to practice EBF than housewives (AOR 0.36; 95 % CI: 0.18, 0.73, p = 0.005). Household income did not show a statistically significant association with EBF. Conclusions The knowledge and attitude of mothers towards EBF was found to be very high. In this study, two thirds of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Improving access to information on recommended infant feeding during routine maternal and child health services is recommended. It is important to encourage EBF among the young, employed and urban mothers through proper counselling and mother friendly work environment.
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              Individual and community-level factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia

              Background Ethiopia is a country with low optimal breast feeding practice, and prelacteal feeding is still a norm. Introduction of prelacteal feeding is a known barrier for optimal breast feeding practices. However, knowledge on determinants of introduction of prelacteal feeding is minimal. This study aimed to identify the effects of individual and community-level factors in the introduction of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia. Methods Data for this study was extracted from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) and focused on a sample from child data, with a sample from 576 clusters of 7692 children who were last-born in the past five years preceding the survey. The data was collected using two-stage cluster design, in which enumeration areas forming the first stage and households making the second stage. A two-level mixed effect multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to determine the individual and community-level factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding. Results From the total sample of children 28.92 % were fed prelacteals. Butter (n = 1143), plain water (n = 395) and milk-other than breast milk (n = 323) were commonly used prelacteals. In multivariable two-level mixed effect model; caesarean mode of delivery (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.87; 95 % CI 1.28, 2.73), and late initiation of breastfeeding (AOR = 5.32; 95 % CI 4.65, 6.09) were both positively associated with the odds of giving prelacteals. Higher economic status 28 % (AOR = 0.72; 95 % CI 0.54, 0.98), giving birth at hand of non-health personnel birth assistance (AOR = 0.68; 95 % CI 0.54, 0.87), large birth size of child (AOR = 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68, 0.95) and high community antenatal care use (AOR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.38, 0.87) were negatively associated with the odds of giving prelacteals. Significant variation in prelacteal feeding practice was also seen among ethnic and religious groups, and across regions. Conclusions The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was high that remained a challenge for optimal breastfeeding in Ethiopia. Not only individual-level factors, but also community-level factors contribute to prelacteal feeding practice. Increasing access to health education through increasing maternal health care service coverage and community involvement is crucial.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nutr
                BMC Nutr
                BMC nutrition
                BioMed Central (London )
                15 February 2019
                15 February 2019
                : 5
                : 14
                [1 ]USAID Transform: Primary Health Care, JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc., P.O. Box 1392 code, 1110 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0610 3238, GRID grid.412801.e, Department of Health Studies, , University of South Africa, ; Pretoria, South Africa
                [3 ]Lalibela Town Health Office, Lalibela, Ethiopia
                [4 ]Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4901 9060, GRID grid.494633.f, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, , Wolaita Sodo University, ; Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
                [6 ]USAID Transform: Primary Health Care, Pathfinder International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [7 ]GRID grid.452347.3, Clinton Health Access Initiative, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Author information
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 15 November 2018
                : 4 February 2019
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                breastfeeding,prelacteal feeding,factors,newborns,mother-infant dyads,ethiopia


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