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      Repeatability of Adaptive Radiation Depends on Spatial Scale: Regional Versus Global Replicates of Stickleback in Lake Versus Stream Habitats

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          Abstract

          The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale-dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation—their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on levels of parallel evolution by quantifying phenotypic and genetic divergence between lake and stream stickleback pairs sampled at regional (Vancouver Island) and global (North America and Europe) scales. We measured phenotypes known to show lake-stream divergence and used reduced representation genome-wide sequencing to estimate genetic divergence. We assessed the scale dependence of parallel evolution by comparing effect sizes from multivariate models and also the direction and magnitude of lake-stream divergence vectors. At the phenotypic level, parallelism was greater at the regional than the global scale. At the genetic level, putative selected loci showed greater lake-stream parallelism at the regional than the global scale. Generally, the level of parallel evolution was low at both scales, except for some key univariate traits. Divergence vectors were often orthogonal, highlighting possible ecological and genetic constraints on parallel evolution at both scales. Overall, our results confirm that the repeatability of adaptive radiation decreases at increasing spatial scales. We suggest that greater environmental heterogeneity at larger scales imposes different selection regimes, thus generating lower repeatability of adaptive radiation at larger spatial scales.

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          The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools

          Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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            Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform

            Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals. Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ∼10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package. Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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              Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis.

              Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Heredity
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0022-1503
                1465-7333
                November 06 2019
                November 06 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
                [3 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ
                [4 ]Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemann-Str. 2, Plön, Germany
                [5 ]University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Bergen, Norway
                [6 ]Department of Aquaculture and Fish Biology, Hólar University College, Háeyri 1, Sauðárkrókur, Iceland
                [7 ]Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
                Article
                10.1093/jhered/esz056
                © 2019

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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