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      MicroRNA-23a promotes pancreatic cancer metastasis by targeting epithelial splicing regulator protein 1

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          Abstract

          miR-23a plays vital roles in various cancer metastases. Here, we found that miR-23a expression was significantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. miR-23a up-regulation was significantly associated with differentiated degree, lymphoid nodal status, tumor invasion and poor survival rate in pancreatic cancer patients. We also found that miR-23a expression was significantly up-regulated in lymph node metastatic tissues and in pancreatic cancer cells that underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). miR-23a down-regulation blocked TGF-β1-induced EMT and reversed the phenotype of EMT in Panc-1 cells. Furthermore, miR-23a down-regulation inhibited Panc-1 cells migration and invasion in vitro and liver metastases in vivo. But the effect of miR-23a up-regulation in Aspc-1 cells was opposite to that of miR-23a down-regulation in Panc-1 cells. Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) was identified as a direct target of miR-23a. Restoration of ESRP1 rescued the effect of miR-23a on pancreatic cancer cell progression. Moreover, miR-23a up-regulation in Aspc-1 cells induced a shift in CD44 expression from variant isoforms (CD44v) to the standard isoform (CD44s) together with increased FGFR2 IIIc mRNA levels, and decreased FGFR2 IIIb expression during EMT. But the effect of miR-23a down-regulation in Panc-1 cells was opposite to that of miR-23a up-regulation in Aspc-1 cells. In addition, the effect of miR-23a up-regulation was partly reversed by ESRP1 over-expression. Taken together, our findings indicated that miR-23a functions as an oncogene by regulating ESRP1 in pancreatic cancer.

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          Most cited references 22

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          MicroRNA expression patterns to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma from normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis.

          While global microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns of many embryologic, physiologic, and oncogenic processes have been described, description of the role of miRNAs in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is lacking. To define the expression pattern of miRNAs in pancreatic cancer and compare it with those of normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis. Specimens were obtained at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center from patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (n = 65) or chronic pancreatitis (n = 42) (January 2000-December 2005). All patients underwent curative pancreatectomy; those with pancreatic cancer were chemotherapy-naive. RNA harvested from resected pancreatic cancers and matched benign adjacent pancreatic tissue as well as from chronic pancreatitis specimens was hybridized to miRNA microarrays. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs that could differentiate pancreatic cancer from normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, or both, as well as a pattern of miRNA expression predictive of long-term (>24 months) survival. Significance of Analysis of Microarrays and Prediction of Analysis of Microarrays were undertaken to identify miRNAs predictive of tissue type and prognosis. P values were calculated by t test, adjusted for multiple testing. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed using mean miRNA expression (high vs low) as threshold and compared by log-rank analysis. Twenty-one miRNAs with increased expression and 4 with decreased expression were identified that correctly differentiated pancreatic cancer from benign pancreatic tissue in 90% of samples by cross validation. Fifteen overexpressed and 8 underexpressed miRNAs differentiated pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis with 93% accuracy. A subgroup of 6 miRNAs was able to distinguish long-term survivors with node-positive disease from those dying within 24 months. Finally, high expression of miR-196a-2 was found to predict poor survival (median, 14.3 months [95% confidence interval, 12.4-16.2] vs 26.5 months [95% confidence interval, 23.4-29.6]; P = .009). Pancreatic cancer may have a distinct miRNA expression pattern that may differentiate it from normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis. miRNA expression patterns may be able to distinguish between long- and short-term survivors, but these findings need to be validated in other study populations.
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            Mechanism of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition and its relationship with metastatic tumor formation.

            Cancer metastasis consists of a sequential series of events, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are recognized as critical events for metastasis of carcinomas. A current area of focus is the histopathological similarity between primary and metastatic tumors, and MET at sites of metastases has been postulated to be part of the process of metastatic tumor formation. Here, we summarize accumulating evidence from experimental studies that directly supports the role of MET in cancer metastasis, and we analyze the main mechanisms that regulate MET or reverse EMT in carcinomas. Given the critical role of MET in metastatic tumor formation, the potential to effectively target the MET process at sites of metastasis offers new hope for inhibiting metastatic tumor formation.
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              MicroRNA-30a inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting Snai1 and is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which regulate gene expression by base-pairing to the 3'-UTR of the target mRNA. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate cancer metastasis, however, central molecular mechanisms of this ability still need to be investigated. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized especially by repression of E-cadherin expression and increased cell motility, is an essential component of cancer metastasis and progression. In the present study, we found that Snai1, a known transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and modulator of EMT, is post-transcriptionally targeted by miRNA-30a in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consistent with this, microRNA-30a expression was found inversely proportional to the invasive potential of various NSCLC cell lines, correlating positively with E-cadherin (epithelial marker) and negatively with N-cadherin (mesenchymal marker) expression. Forced re-introduction of miR-30a significantly altered cell morphology, in vitro invasion and migration of invasive cell lines, this being paralleled by a downregulation of Snai1 and upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Using a chicken embryonic metastasis assay, we found that miR-30a suppresses in vivo distant metastasis to the lungs and liver. Finally, we screened the expression of miR-30a in 64 consecutively resected NSCLC patients and found that, in 81% of the patients, expression of miR-30a was downregulated significantly (p < 0.0001) in tumors compared to corresponding normal tissues. These results suggest that miR-30a targets Snai1, inhibits invasion and metastasis, and is downregulated in NSCLC. Copyright © 2011 UICC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                10 October 2017
                24 August 2017
                : 8
                : 47
                : 82854-82871
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute, South Western Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Xiaowu Li, lixw1966@ 123456163.com
                Article
                20692
                10.18632/oncotarget.20692
                5669934
                Copyright: © 2017 Wu et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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