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      Current Biomedical Applications of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing

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      Applied Sciences

      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged over the past four decades as a cost-effective, on-demand modality for fabrication of geometrically complex objects. The ability to design and print virtually any object shape using a diverse array of materials, such as metals, polymers, ceramics and bioinks, has allowed for the adoption of this technology for biomedical applications in both research and clinical settings. Current advancements in tissue engineering and regeneration, therapeutic delivery, medical device fabrication and operative management planning ensure that AM will continue to play an increasingly important role in the future of healthcare. In this review, we outline current biomedical applications of common AM techniques and materials.

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          Most cited references 156

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          Functional repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients.

          Single murine and human intestinal stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids. Increased cAMP levels induce rapid swelling of such organoids by opening the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor receptor (CFTR). This response is lost in organoids derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to correct the CFTR locus by homologous recombination in cultured intestinal stem cells of CF patients. The corrected allele is expressed and fully functional as measured in clonally expanded organoids. This study provides proof of concept for gene correction by homologous recombination in primary adult stem cells derived from patients with a single-gene hereditary defect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Three-dimensional bioprinting of thick vascularized tissues.

            The advancement of tissue and, ultimately, organ engineering requires the ability to pattern human tissues composed of cells, extracellular matrix, and vasculature with controlled microenvironments that can be sustained over prolonged time periods. To date, bioprinting methods have yielded thin tissues that only survive for short durations. To improve their physiological relevance, we report a method for bioprinting 3D cell-laden, vascularized tissues that exceed 1 cm in thickness and can be perfused on chip for long time periods (>6 wk). Specifically, we integrate parenchyma, stroma, and endothelium into a single thick tissue by coprinting multiple inks composed of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (hNDFs) within a customized extracellular matrix alongside embedded vasculature, which is subsequently lined with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These thick vascularized tissues are actively perfused with growth factors to differentiate hMSCs toward an osteogenic lineage in situ. This longitudinal study of emergent biological phenomena in complex microenvironments represents a foundational step in human tissue generation.
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              Alginate: properties and biomedical applications.

              Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                ASPCC7
                Applied Sciences
                Applied Sciences
                MDPI AG
                2076-3417
                April 2019
                April 25 2019
                : 9
                : 8
                : 1713
                Article
                10.3390/app9081713
                © 2019
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/8/1713

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