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      Collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Resulting from a Single Dose of Zoledronate

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          Abstract

          Bisphosphonates are commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis, Paget's disease, multiple myeloma and hypercalcemia. Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is known to occur uncommonly with exposure to bisphosphonates, specifically pamidronate and alendronate; it has rarely and equivocally been reported with zoledronate therapy. We describe the case of a 36-year-old African American female with metastatic breast cancer who presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria and acute kidney injury within 2 weeks of exposure to a single dose of zoledronate. The patient had a partial recovery of her renal function and showed improved proteinuria to a subnephrotic level after discontinuing zoledronate. In contrast to 2 prior reports of zoledronate-induced collapsing FSGS, the causative role of the exposure described here is certain. Our case necessitates the addition of zoledronate to the list of known causes of collapsing FSGS. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of periodically monitoring renal function and urine protein excretion with the use of zoledronate, which allows prompt diagnosis and withdrawal of the drug to increase the probability of renal recovery.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Mutations in ACTN4, encoding alpha-actinin-4, cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

          Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common, non-specific renal lesion. Although it is often secondary to other disorders, including HIV infection, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, FSGS also appears as an isolated, idiopathic condition. FSGS is characterized by increased urinary protein excretion and decreasing kidney function. Often, renal insufficiency in affected patients progresses to end-stage renal failure, a highly morbid state requiring either dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation. Here we present evidence implicating mutations in the gene encoding alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4; ref. 2), an actin-filament crosslinking protein, as the cause of disease in three families with an autosomal dominant form of FSGS. In vitro, mutant alpha-actinin-4 binds filamentous actin (F-actin) more strongly than does wild-type alpha-actinin-4. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of glomerular podocytes may be altered in this group of patients. Our results have implications for understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and may lead to a better understanding of the genetic basis of susceptibility to kidney damage.
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            Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group.

            Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a serious health problem, and additional treatments are needed. We studied the effects of oral alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures and height loss in 994 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The women were treated with placebo or alendronate (5 or 10 mg daily for three years, or 20 mg for two years followed by 5 mg for one year); all the women received 500 mg of calcium daily. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The occurrence of new vertebral fractures and the progression of vertebral deformities were determined by an analysis of digitized radiographs, and loss of height was determined by sequential height measurements. The women receiving alendronate had significant, progressive increases in bone mineral density at all skeletal sites, whereas those receiving placebo had decreases in bone mineral density. At three years, the mean (+/- SE) differences in bone mineral density between the women receiving 10 mg of alendronate daily and those receiving placebo were 8.8 +/- 0.4 percent in the spine, 5.9 +/- 0.5 percent in the femoral neck, 7.8 +/- 0.6 percent in the trochanter, and 2.5 +/- 0.3 percent in the total body (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The 5-mg dose was less effective than the 10-mg dose, and the regimen of 20 mg followed by 5 mg was similar in efficacy to the 10-mg dose. Overall, treatment with alendronate was associated with a 48 percent reduction in the proportion of women with new vertebral fractures (3.2 percent, vs. 6.2 percent in the placebo group; P = 0.03), a decreased progression of vertebral deformities (33 percent, vs. 41 percent in the placebo group; P = 0.028), and a reduced loss of height (P = 0.005) and was well tolerated. Daily treatment with alendronate progressively increases the bone mass in the spine, hip, and total body and reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures, the progression of vertebral deformities, and height loss in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
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              Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the mevalonate pathway and prevent post-translational prenylation of GTP-binding proteins, including Ras.

              Bisphosphonates are currently the most important class of antiresorptive drugs used for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Although the molecular targets of bisphosphonates have not been identified, these compounds inhibit bone resorption by mechanisms that can lead to osteoclast apoptosis. Bisphosphonates also induce apoptosis in mouse J774 macrophages in vitro, probably by the same mechanisms that lead to osteoclast apoptosis. We have found that, in J774 macrophages, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (such as alendronate, ibandronate, and risedronate) inhibit post-translational modification (prenylation) of proteins, including the GTP-binding protein Ras, with farnesyl or geranylgeranyl isoprenoid groups. Clodronate did not inhibit protein prenylation. Mevastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutatyl (HMG)-CoA reductase and hence the biosynthetic pathway required for the production of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, also caused apoptosis in J774 macrophages and murine osteoclasts in vitro. Furthermore, alendronate-induced apoptosis, like mevastatin-induced apoptosis, could be suppressed in J774 cells by the addition of farnesyl pyrophosphate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, while the effect of alendronate on osteoclast number and bone resorption in murine calvariae in vitro could be overcome by the addition of mevalonic acid. These observations suggest that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate drugs cause apoptosis following inhibition of post-translational prenylation of proteins such as Ras. It is likely that these potent antiresorptive bisphosphonates also inhibit bone resorption by preventing protein prenylation in osteoclasts and that enzymes of the mevalonate pathway or prenyl protein transferases are the molecular targets of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. Furthermore, the data support the view that clodronate acts by a different mechanism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NNE
                NNE
                10.1159/issn.1664-5529
                Nephron Extra
                S. Karger AG
                1664-5529
                2014
                September – December 2014
                14 October 2014
                : 4
                : 3
                : 168-174
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and bDepartment of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex., USA
                Author notes
                *Kamalanathan K. Sambandam, MD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-8516 (USA), E-Mail ksambandam@utsouthwestern.edu
                Article
                366450 PMC4241641 Nephron Extra 2014;4:168-174
                10.1159/000366450
                PMC4241641
                25473406
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Case Report

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