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      ARQ-197 enhances the antitumor effect of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via decelerating its intracellular clearance

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          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the heaviest malignant burdens in China. Molecular targeting agent, sorafenib, is the main therapeutic option for antitumor therapy of advanced HCC, but it is currently too expensive for the public and its therapeutic effect does not satisfy initial expectation. Therefore, it is important to develop more effective molecular targeted therapeutic strategies for advanced HCC.

          Materials and methods

          The antitumor effects of sorafenib or ARQ-197, an antagonist of c-MET (tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor), were examined by MTT or in murine tumor model. The effect of ARQ-197 on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) or multidrug resistance (MDR) was examined by quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of related genes. The clearance of sorafenib in HCC cells was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.


          ARQ-197 treatment enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib. Mechanistic studies indicated that ARQ-197 inhibited the expression of EMT- and MDR-related genes. Moreover, ARQ-197 treatment decelerated the clearance of sorafenib in cultured HCC cells and subcutaneous HCC tumors in nude mice.


          In the present work, our data suggested that ARQ-197 decelerated the clearance of sorafenib in HCC cells and enhanced the antitumor effect of sorafenib.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Tivantinib for second-line treatment of MET-high, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (METIV-HCC): a final analysis of a phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

          Tivantinib (ARQ 197), a selective, oral MET inhibitor, improved overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo in a randomised phase 2 study in patients with high MET expression (MET-high) hepatocellular carcinoma previously treated with sorafenib. The aim of this phase 3 study was to confirm the results of the phase 2 trial.
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            Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): beyond sorafenib-chemotherapy.

             Dae Kim,  Chetasi Talati,  Richard Kim (corresponding) (2017)
            Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer with poor prognosis. The incidence of HCC and HCC-related deaths have increased over the last several decades. However, the treatment options for advanced HCC are very limited. Sorafenib remains the only drug approved for systemic treatment for advanced HCC. However, prior to sorafenib era conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies have been studied in advanced HCC. In this review, clinical studies of systemic chemotherapy for advanced HCC will be summarized and discussed.
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              LncRNA SNHG3 induces EMT and sorafenib resistance by modulating the miR-128/CD151 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays important roles in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Small nucleolar RNA host gene 3 (SNHG3) has been considered as an lncRNA to be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Here, we reported that SNHG3 expression was significantly higher in the highly metastatic HCC (HCCLM3) cells compared with the lowly metastatic HCC cells (Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5). Furthermore, forced expression of SNHG3 promoted cell invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and sorafenib resistance in HCC. Moreover, SNHG3 overexpression induced HCC cells EMT via miR-128/CD151 cascade activation. Clinically, our data revealed that increased SNHG3 expression is correlated with poor HCC survival outcomes and sorafenib response. These data suggest that SNHG3 may be a novel therapeutic target and a biomarker for predicting response to sorafenib treatment of HCC.

                Author and article information

                Onco Targets Ther
                Onco Targets Ther
                OncoTargets and Therapy
                OncoTargets and therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                26 February 2019
                : 12
                : 1629-1640
                [1 ]Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, People’s Republic of China, boxiaoc@ 123456163.com
                [2 ]The 5th Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100039, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaochen Bo, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No. 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing City 100850, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 6693 2251, Fax +86 10 6693 2251, Email boxiaoc@ 123456163.com
                © 2019 Gao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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