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      Indian Brachytherapy Society Guidelines for radiotherapeutic management of cervical cancer with special emphasis on high-dose-rate brachytherapy

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          Abstract

          Brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervical cancer is vital for optimal outcomes. There is heterogeneity in brachytherapy treatment practice for cervical cancer across India. In an attempt to standardize various processes involved in cervical cancer brachytherapy, the expert members of the Indian Brachytherapy Society (IBS) developed a document related to radiation therapy treatment of cervical cancer with special emphasis on brachytherapy. The guidelines are based on high quality clinical evidence, expert opinion and consensus wherever evidence was lacking. The document provides a guide for external beam radiation and details of all the processes involved in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy including patient selection, preparation, principles and technique of BT applications, target and normal tissue definition, dose prescriptions, BT planning, reporting parameters, common complications of BT and their management, scope for research, etc. In summary, we present here practical tips and tricks, recording and reporting of cervical cancer brachytherapy, which can be implemented in various clinical environments and forms the basis of this report.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology.

            The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm3; optional 5 and 10 cm3. Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm3. Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD2)-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Pötter R, Van Limbergen E et al. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO Working Group (I): concepts and terms in 3D image-based 3D treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy with emphasis on MRI assessment of GTV and CTV. Radiother Oncol 2005;74:235-245]). It is expected that the therapeutic ratio including target coverage and sparing of organs at risk can be significantly improved, if radiation dose is prescribed to a 3D image-based CTV taking into account dose volume constraints for OAR. However, prospective use of these recommendations in the clinical context is warranted, to further explore and develop the potential of 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy.
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              Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (I): concepts and terms in 3D image based 3D treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy with emphasis on MRI assessment of GTV and CTV.

              Brachytherapy (BT) plays a crucial role in the management of invasive cervix cancer from stage I to IV. Intracavitary techniques are based on afterloading devices, with different types of applicators. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better assessment of gross tumour volume (GTV) and definition and delineation of target volume (CTV) compared to traditional approaches. Accurate and reproducible delineation of GTV, CTV and PTV, as well as of critical organs has a direct impact on BT treatment planning, especially if it is possible to adapt the pear-shape isodose by optimisation using DVH analysis. When introducing a 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV assessment, there is a need for a common language to describe the concepts and to define the terms which are to be used. In 2000, GEC-ESTRO decided to support 3D imaging based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT with the creation of a Working Group. The task was to describe basic concepts and terms and to work out a terminology enabling various groups working in this advanced field to use a common language. The recommendations described in this report were proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions (IGR, Leuven, Vienna) and were stepwise validated against the background of different clinical experience. As GTV and CTV for BT change significantly during treatment, time frame for assessment of GTV and CTV for BT is specified in this report: at time of diagnosis GTV(D), CTV(D) and at time of BT GTV(B), CTV(B). Furthermore, CTV for BT is defined related to risk for recurrence: high risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. Beside verbal descriptions detailed examples are given, partly in form of schematic drawings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Contemp Brachytherapy
                J Contemp Brachytherapy
                JCB
                Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
                Termedia Publishing House
                1689-832X
                2081-2841
                29 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 11
                : 4
                : 293-306
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India
                [2 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                [3 ]Department of Gynecology Oncology, Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India
                [4 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, M.S. Ramaiah Memorial Hospital, Bangalore, India
                [5 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Siddhivinayak Cancer Hospital, Miraj, India
                [6 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, India
                [7 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, India
                [8 ]Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India
                [9 ]Medical Physics Division, Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital, Chennai, India
                [10 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Jupiter Hospital, Mumbai, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Umesh Mahantshetty, Department of Radiation Oncology, 1123, 11th floor, Homi Bhabha Block, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai-400012, Maharashtra, India. phone: +91-22-24177168. e-mail: mahantshettyum@ 123456tmc.gov.in
                Article
                37456
                10.5114/jcb.2019.87406
                6737572
                Copyright: © 2019 Termedia Sp. z o. o.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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