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      Inhibition of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Ameliorates Apoptosis Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in the Kidney Tubule Epithelial Cells (NRK-52E)

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          Abstract

          Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)-induced apoptosis has been shown to be involved in ischemic and toxic tubular damage. Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress can activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the oxidative stress-JNK pathway is an important apoptotic pathway of cells exposed to various stresses. The present study was designed to investigate JNK activation and the effects of the JNK pathway inhibition during H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced apoptosis in kidney epithelial tubule cells (NRK-52E). Materials and Methods: NRK-52E cells were treated with 0–500 µ M H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and/or 100 µ M quercetin (an inhibitor of the JNK pathway). Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry analysis and DNA ladder. JNK activity was assessed by the GST-c-Jun (1-169) binding/protein kinase assay. Results: H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> induced apoptosis in NRK-52E cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was demonstrated by the reduced DNA PI staining, externalization of phosphatidylserine and DNA ladder. Apoptosis induced by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>was accompanied by JNK activation and up-regulated JNK activity. Quercetin treatment suppressed the JNK activity and ameliorated apoptosis induced by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. Conclusions: H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> induced apoptosis in NRK-52E cells, which was associated with activation and up-regulation of JNK. Quercetin treatment could decrease JNK activity and ameliorate H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Mitochondria and apoptosis.

          A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, altered cellular oxidation-reduction, and participation of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. The different signals that converge on mitochondria to trigger or inhibit these events and their downstream effects delineate several major pathways in physiological cell death.
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            Requirement for ceramide-initiated SAPK/JNK signalling in stress-induced apoptosis.

            The induction of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, involves activation of a signalling system, many elements of which remain unknown. The sphingomyelin pathway, initiated by hydrolysis of the phospholipid sphingomyelin in the cell membrane to generate the second messenger ceramide, is thought to mediate apoptosis in response to tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, to Fas ligand and to X-rays. It is not known whether it plays a role in the stimulation of other forms of stress-induced apoptosis. Given that environmental stresses also stimulate a stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), the sphingomyelin and SAPK/JNK signalling systems may be coordinated in induction of apoptosis. Here we report that ceramide initiates apoptosis through the SAPK cascade and provide evidence for a signalling mechanism that integrates cytokine- and stress-activated apoptosis.
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              Involvement of p85 in p53-dependent apoptotic response to oxidative stress.

              Reactive oxygen species have damaging effects on cellular components and so trigger defensive responses by the cell and even programmed cell death, although the mechanisms by which mammalian cells transmit signals in response to oxidative damage are unknown. We report here that the protein p85, a regulator of the signalling protein phosphatidyl-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K), participates in the cell death process that is induced in response to oxidative stress and that this role of p85 in apoptosis does not involve PI(3)K. We show that disruption of p85 by homologous recombination impairs the cellular apoptotic response to oxidative stress. Because the protein p53 is required for cell death induced by oxidative damage, we examined the relation between p85 and p53. Using a chimaeric p53 fusion protein with the oestrogen receptor (p53ER) to supply p53 (p53 is induced upon binding of p53ER to oestradiol) in a p53-deficient cell line, we found that p85 is upregulated by p53 and that its involvement in p53-mediated apoptosis is independent of PI(3)K. We propose that p85 acts as a signal transducer in the cellular response to oxidative stress, mediating cell death regulated by p53.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                May 2002
                02 May 2002
                : 91
                : 1
                : 142-147
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology, Yamanashi Medical University, Tamaho, Yamanashi, Japan
                Article
                57616 Nephron 2002;91:142–147
                10.1159/000057616
                12021531
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/57616
                Categories
                Original Paper

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