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      Clinical and Pathologic Presentation of Primary Ocular Surface Tumors among Zambians

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          Aim: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and pathologic presentation of ocular surface tumors (OSTs) and to more precisely differentiate the grades of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and benign lesions among Zambians. Methods: Two-hundred sixty-five Zambian patients presenting with ocular surface growths, suspicious for OSSN, were recruited between November 2017 and November 2019 to a cross-sectional study to investigate their lesions. Sociodemographic data were collected, HIV infection status and vision tests were performed, and lesions were measured and documented. Lesions >2 mm in diameter were excised and sent for pathology analysis. In addition to the biopsies, tears, blood, and buccal swabs were collected. CD4+ T-cell counts were measured by flow cytometry. Lesions were classified according to the WHO guidelines. χ<sup>2</sup> and bivariate correlations were used to analyze variable associations and strengths with phi/Cramer’s V and correlation coefficients, respectively. Binary logistics was used to adjust for covariance. Results: In this study, 68.3% of the participants were found to be HIV positive. The most frequent diagnoses were invasive OSSN (45.3%), preinvasive OSSN (29.1%), and pterygium (22.6%). Invasive OSSN comprised keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (87.5%), basaloid SCC (3.3%), and spindle cell carcinoma (3.3%). Unusual carcinomas, not described previously, included hybrid SCC (5.0%) and acantholytic SCC (0.8%). Invasive OSSN had advanced tumor (T3/T4) staging (93.3%) at diagnosis. Lymphadenopathy was rare (2.3%), and metastasis was absent. Patients were mostly female (59.2%). Median age was 36 (interquartile ranges 33–41) years (ranges 18–81). Patients with invasive OSSN were more likely to present with pain ( p = 0.007), redness ( p = 0.034), excessive tearing ( p = 0.0001), discharge ( p = 0.011), bleeding ( p = 0.007), reduced vision ( p = 0.0001), fungating lesion ( p = 0.001), and blindness ( p = 0.005); location at temporal limbus ( p = 0.0001), inferior limbus ( p = 0.0001), or circumlimbal ( p = 0.001); and extension to cornea ( p = 0.006) and forniceal palpebral conjunctiva ( p = 0.001). Invasive OSSN was associated with any smoking habit and alcohol consumption ( p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). HIV positivity was strongly associated with OSSN (74.6% OSSN vs. 49.3% benign lesions; p = 0.0001; phi: 0.237 [ p = 0.0001]). Conclusion: OSTs are very common in Zambia and are strongly associated with HIV coinfection. Patients with OSSN were more likely to be HIV positive than those with pterygia. Despite the commonality of OSTs in sub-Saharan Africa, these cancers have historically been poorly characterized.

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          Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa.

          In the coming decades, cancer will be a major clinical and public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. However, clinical and public health infrastructure and services in many countries are not positioned to deal with the growing cancer burden. Pathology is a core service required to serve many needs related to cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Cancer diagnosis, treatment, and research all depend on adequate pathology. Pathology is also necessary for cancer registration, which is needed to accurately estimate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer registry data directly guide policy-makers' decisions for cancer control and the allocation of clinical and public health services. Despite the centrality of pathology in many components of cancer care and control, countries in sub-Saharan Africa have at best a tenth of the pathology coverage of that in high-income countries. Equipment, processes, and services are lacking, and there is a need for quality assurance for the definition and implementation of high-quality, accurate diagnosis. Training and advocacy for pathology are also needed. We propose approaches to improve the status of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa to address the needs of patients with cancer and other diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The science of pterygia.

            Pterygium is an ocular surface disease of humans attributed to chronic ultraviolet-B exposure. Clinically, the condition involves invasive centripetal growth with associated inflammation and neovascularisation. Previous clinical studies focused primarily on the clinical characteristics and surgical management of pterygia and, because of this, the pathogenesis of pterygia remains incompletely understood. However, considerable progress in this area has been achieved, providing additional insight into this complex disease. This recent evidence implicates antiapoptotic mechanisms, immunological mechanisms, cytokines, growth factors, extracellular matrix modulators, genetic factors, viral infections and other possible causative factors. Limited investigation regarding differences in pathogenesis of primary and recurrent pterygia has been performed. We summarise many of these recent discoveries concerning the pathogenesis of pterygia and describe reported differences between primary and recurrent pterygia.
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              HPV-Related Nonkeratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx: Utility of Microscopic Features in Predicting Patient Outcome

              Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an etiologic agent in a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The aim of this study was to sub-classify SCC of the oropharynx based upon histologic features into nonkeratinizing (NK) SCC, keratinizing (K) SCC, and hybrid SCC, and determine the frequency of HPV and patient survival in each group. Patients with oropharyngeal SCC with a minimum of 2 years of clinical follow-up were identified from radiation oncology databases from 1997 to 2004. All patients received either up front surgery with postoperative radiation or definitive radiation based therapy. In situ hybridization (ISH) for high-risk HPV subtypes and immunohistochemistry for p16, a protein frequently up-regulated in HPV-associated carcinomas, were performed. Overall and disease-specific survival were assessed. Of 118 cases, 46.6% were NK SCC, 24.6% K SCC and 28.8% hybrid SCC. NK SCC occurred in slightly younger patients that were more often male. It more frequently presented with lymph node metastases and was surgically resected compared to K SCC. NK SCC was significantly more likely to be HPV and p16 positive than KSCC (P < 0.001) and to have better overall and disease-specific survival (P = 0.0002; P = 0.0142, respectively). Hybrid SCC was also more likely than K SCC to be HPV and p16 positive (P = 0.003; P = 0.002, respectively) and to have better overall survival (P = 0.0105). Sub-classification of oropharyngeal SCC by histologic type provides useful clinical information. NK SCC histology strongly predicts HPV-association and better patient survival compared to K SCC. Hybrid SCC appears to have an intermediate frequency of HPV-association and patient survival.

                Author and article information

                Ocular Oncology and Pathology
                S. Karger AG
                March 2021
                21 January 2021
                : 7
                : 2
                : 108-120
                aDepartment of Pathology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia
                bUniversity Teaching Hospital, Eye Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
                cNebraska Center for Virology and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
                dNebraska Center for Virology and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
                Author notes
                *Peter C. Angeletti, Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4240 Fair St., Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (USA), peter.angeletti@unl.edu
                511610 Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021;7:108–120
                © 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 13
                Research Article


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