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      Association between airflow limitation severity and reduced bone mineral density in Japanese men

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          This study aimed to assess the association between airflow limitation (AL) severity and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese men.

          Subjects and methods

          This cross-sectional study included 290 subjects aged over 40 years (mean age 72.0, SD 11.6), who underwent a comprehensive health examination, including spirometry and measurement of BMD at the left femoral neck using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), between 2016 and 2017 at Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center. AL was defined as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <0.7. Reversibility tests were not performed in this study. The criteria used for the AL staging were developed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The subjects were divided into the following three groups: a control group (normal pulmonary function), GOLD Stage I group (mild AL), and GOLD Stage II-IV group (moderate-to-very severe AL). BMD was classified based on the young adult mean (YAM) as normal (88.6% ≦ YAM [−1 SD ≦]), osteopenia (70% <YAM <88.6% [<- 1 SD and > −2.5 SD]), or osteoporosis (YAM ≦ 70% [≦ −2.5 SD]). Reduced BMD was defined as osteopenia, osteoporosis, or medication used for osteoporosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between AL severity and the reduced BMD.


          The prevalence of reduced BMD in subjects with moderate-to-severe AL (76.2%) was significantly higher than in those without AL (47.9%) ( p=0.030). In logistic regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, pack-years, physical activity, and alcohol drinking, the risk of reduced BMD (odds ratio: 3.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.20–12.49; p=0.024) was significantly higher in subjects with moderate-to-severe AL than in those with normal pulmonary function.


          Present results suggest that reduced BMD is associated with AL severity in Japanese men.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.
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            Mortality in COPD: Role of comorbidities.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an increasing burden throughout the world. COPD-related mortality is probably underestimated because of the difficulties associated with identifying the precise cause of death. Respiratory failure is considered the major cause of death in advanced COPD. Comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer are also major causes and, in mild-to-moderate COPD, are the leading causes of mortality. The links between COPD and these conditions are not fully understood. However, a link through the inflammation pathway has been suggested, as persistent low-grade pulmonary and systemic inflammation, both known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer, are present in COPD independent of cigarette smoking. Lung-specific measurements, such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), predict mortality in COPD and in the general population. However, composite tools, such as health-status measurements (e.g. St George's Respiratory Questionnaire) and the BODE index, which incorporates Body mass index, lung function (airflow Obstruction), Dyspnoea and Exercise capacity, predict mortality better than FEV(1) alone. These multidimensional tools may be more valuable because, unlike predictive approaches based on single parameters, they can reflect the range of comorbidities and the complexity of underlying mechanisms associated with COPD. The current paper reviews the role of comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality, the putative underlying pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid conditions (i.e. inflammation), and the tools used to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality.
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              Mortality after osteoporotic fractures.

              The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of mortality following osteoporotic fractures at the spine, shoulder, hip, and forearm. We studied 2,847 patients with fractures at these sites identified from the radiology department in Malmö, Sweden. Poisson regression was used to compute mortality immediately after the fracture and with time. Mortality immediately after fracture was significantly higher in fracture cases than in the general population except for forearm fractures in both men and women. Mortality was higher in men than in women, but not different when adjusted for sex-specific population risks. For spine, shoulder, and hip fracture, mortality fell after the 1st year, an effect that was most marked for patients with spine fractures. The decrease in mortality risk with time was significant for hip, vertebral, and shoulder fracture. We conclude that the risk of death is increased in patients with osteoporotic fractures and that the highest risk is found immediately after the fracture event. The decreasing mortality with time after fracture may be due in part to a decrease in deaths causally related to the fracture. The extent to which early intervention for osteoporosis might avoid some of these deaths is unknown.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                16 October 2019
                : 14
                : 2355-2363
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University , Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care , Kumamoto 861-8528, Japan
                [3 ]Tokorozawa Respiratory Clinic , Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
                [4 ]Kirigaoka Tsuda Hospital , Kitakyusyu, Fukuoka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hisamitsu OmoriDepartment of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University , 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Chuo-ku Kumamoto, Kumamoto862-0976, JapanTel +81 96 373 5462Fax +81 96 373 5462 Email
                © 2019 Watanabe et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 47, Pages: 9
                Original Research


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