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      Duloxetine, a Selective Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor, Increased Plasma Levels of 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol but Not Homovanillic Acid in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder


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          We investigated the effects of duloxetine on the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in 64 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).


          Major depressive episode was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV) according to the DSM-IV text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17). Blood sampling and clinical evaluation were performed on days 0, 28, and 56.


          Duloxetine treatment for 8 weeks significantly increased the plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels but not the homovanillic acid (HVA) levels in responders with MDD.


          These results imply that noradrenaline plays an important role in alleviating depressive symptoms.

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          Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a state-marker of mood episodes in bipolar disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

          Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a central role in synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most disabling of all psychiatric disorders and is associated with poor outcomes. Some studies suggest that BDNF levels decrease during mood states and remain normal during euthymia, but other studies have contradicted this paradigm. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies that measured peripheral BDNF levels in adults with BD. We conducted a systematic review using electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured BDNF in plasma or serum in vivo in adult patients with BD. The resulting studies were compiled to measure the effect sizes (ESs) of the differences in BDNF levels between BD patients in different mood states and controls. Thirteen studies were included with a total of 1113 subjects. The BDNF levels were decreased in both mania and depression when compared to controls (ES -0.81, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.52, p < 0.0001 and ES -0.97, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.51, p = 0.02, respectively). The BDNF levels were not different in euthymia when compared to controls (ES -0.20, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.21, p = 0.33). Meta-regression analyses in euthymia showed that age (p < 0.0001) and length of illness (p = 0.04) influenced the variation in ES. There was also an increase in BDNF levels following the treatment for acute mania (ES -0.63, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.15, p = 0.01). In conclusion, BDNF levels are consistently reduced during manic and depressive episodes and recover after treatment for acute mania. In euthymia, BDNF decreases with age and length of illness. These data suggest that peripheral BDNF could be used as a biomarker of mood states and disease progression for BD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Effects of paroxetine or milnacipran on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in depressed patients.

            Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, abundant in the brain and periphery. Researchers have reported that serum BDNF levels in drug-free depressed patients are lower than those of healthy controls, and have proposed that these low levels might reflect a failure of neuronal plasticity in depression. In the present study, we investigated the effects of paroxetine, an SSRI, and milnacipran, an SNRI, on serum BDNF levels in depressed patients. Serum levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA before, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after the start of treatment with antidepressants. Forty-two patients were randomly administered paroxetine (21 cases) or milnacipran (21 cases). A negative correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and baseline Ham-D scores. The response and remission rates for each drug were not significantly different. Serum BDNF levels in responders were significantly increased 2.6- and 1.8-fold 8 weeks after treatment with paroxetine or milnacipran, respectively. These results suggest that both drugs improve the depressive state by increasing BDNF levels.
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              A review of duloxetine 60 mg once-daily dosing for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain due to chronic osteoarthritis pain and low back pain.

              Duloxetine is a selective dual neuronal serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). It is indicated in the United States for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and several chronic pain conditions, including management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain due to chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain and chronic low back pain (LBP). Its use for antidepressant and anxiolytic actions has been extensively reviewed previously. We here review the evidence for the efficacy of 60 mg once-daily dosing of duloxetine for chronic pain conditions. The literature was searched for clinical trials in humans conducted in the past 10 years involving duloxetine. There were 199 results in the initial search. Studies not in the English language were excluded. We then included only studies of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain (OA and LBP). Studies of painful symptoms reported in mental health studies were excluded. This resulted in 32 studies. Articles that did not include a 60 mg/day daily dose as a study arm were excluded. This resulted in 30 studies, broken down as follows: 12 for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 9 for fibromyalgia, 6 for LBP, and 3 for OA pain. The studies reviewed report that duloxetine 60 mg once-daily dosing is an effective option for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain due to chronic OA pain and chronic LBP. As these pains are often comorbid with MDD or GAD, duloxetine might possess the pharmacologic properties to be a versatile agent able to address several symptoms in these patients. With adequate attention to FDA prescribing guidance regarding safety and drug-drug interactions, duloxetine 60 mg once-daily dosing appears to be an effective option in the appropriate pain patient population. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

                Author and article information

                Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
                Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
                Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience
                Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
                April 2014
                24 April 2014
                : 12
                : 1
                : 37-40
                Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Reiji Yoshimura, MD, PhD. Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 8078555, Japan. Tel: +81-936917253, Fax: +81-6924894, yoshi621@ 123456med.uoeh-u.ac.jp
                Copyright© 2014, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology

                This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Astellas Pharma
                Funded by: Janssen Pharmaceutical
                Funded by: Eli Lilly
                Funded by: Glaxo Smith Kline
                Funded by: Pfizer
                Funded by: Daimppon Sumitomo Pharma
                Funded by: Otsuka Phamaceutical
                Funded by: Chugai Pharmaceutical
                Original Article


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