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      Secukinumab for ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis

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          Abstract

          The treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) positively changed since the introduction of anti-TNFα drugs. These treatments were shown to reduce the symptoms and signs of the diseases and improve the quality of life. However, a variable percentage of patients do not respond to anti-TNFα or can exhibit a loss of response and, furthermore, despite anti-TNFα drugs’ proven efficacy in reducing peripheral radiographic progression in PsA, the impact in reducing radiographic damage in AS is still debated. Recently, the discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms paved the way to the development of new drugs that target other pro-inflammatory cytokines. In particular, the inhibition of interleukin (IL)-17, which is the principal cytokine produced by Th17 lymphocytes, a pro-inflammatory subset involved in both inflammation and new bone formation in AS and PsA, demonstrated promising results. The new molecule secukinumab, an IL-17A inhibitor, showed its efficacy and safety in phase III randomized clinical trials in AS and PsA and is the first non-anti-TNFα biologic approved for the treatment of AS, providing a useful alternative treatment strategy in both diseases. The aim of this article was to review the pathophysiological basis, the efficacy and the safety of secukinumab treatment in AS and PsA patients.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Psoriatic arthritis: epidemiology, clinical features, course, and outcome.

          Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has been defined as a unique inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. Its exact prevalence is unknown, but estimates vary from 0.3% to 1% of the population. The clinical features described initially are recognised by most experienced clinicians, although they are most distinct in early disease. Initially, PsA typically presents as an oligoarticular and mild disease. However, with time PsA becomes polyarticular, and it is a severe disease in at least 20% of patients. Patients with PsA who present with polyarticular disease are at risk for disease progression. In addition to progression of clinical and radiological damage, health related quality of life is reduced among patients with PsA. It important to note that patients included in recent drug trials resemble patients followed prospectively in a clinic.
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            A large-scale genetic association study confirms IL12B and leads to the identification of IL23R as psoriasis-risk genes.

            We performed a multitiered, case-control association study of psoriasis in three independent sample sets of white North American individuals (1,446 cases and 1,432 controls) with 25,215 genecentric single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and found a highly significant association with an IL12B 3'-untranslated-region SNP (rs3212227), confirming the results of a small Japanese study. This SNP was significant in all three sample sets (odds ratio [OR](common) 0.64, combined P [Pcomb]=7.85x10(-10)). A Monte Carlo simulation to address multiple testing suggests that this association is not a type I error. The coding regions of IL12B were resequenced in 96 individuals with psoriasis, and 30 additional IL12B-region SNPs were genotyped. Haplotypes were estimated, and genotype-conditioned analyses identified a second risk allele (rs6887695) located approximately 60 kb upstream of the IL12B coding region that exhibited association with psoriasis after adjustment for rs3212227. Together, these two SNPs mark a common IL12B risk haplotype (OR(common) 1.40, Pcomb=8.11x10(-9)) and a less frequent protective haplotype (OR(common) 0.58, Pcomb=5.65x10(-12)), which were statistically significant in all three studies. Since IL12B encodes the common IL-12p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, we individually genotyped 17 SNPs in the genes encoding the other chains of these cytokines (IL12A and IL23A) and their receptors (IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R). Haplotype analyses identified two IL23R missense SNPs that together mark a common psoriasis-associated haplotype in all three studies (OR(common) 1.44, Pcomb=3.13x10(-6)). Individuals homozygous for both the IL12B and the IL23R predisposing haplotypes have an increased risk of disease (OR(common) 1.66, Pcomb=1.33x10(-8)). These data, and the previous observation that administration of an antibody specific for the IL-12p40 subunit to patients with psoriasis is highly efficacious, suggest that these genes play a fundamental role in psoriasis pathogenesis.
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              Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis 2015 Treatment Recommendations for Psoriatic Arthritis.

              To update the 2009 Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) treatment recommendations for the spectrum of manifestations affecting patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                21 October 2016
                : 12
                : 1587-1592
                Affiliations
                Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze della Salute “Vincenzo Tiberio”, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ennio Lubrano, Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze della Salute “Vincenzo Tiberio”, Università degli Studi del Molise, Via Giovanni Paolo II, C/da Tappino, 86100 Campobasso, Italy, Tel +39 0874 404745, Fax +39 0874 404745, Email enniolubrano@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-12-1587
                10.2147/TCRM.S100091
                5085310
                © 2016 Lubrano and Perrotta. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                treatment, secukinumab, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, anti il-17

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