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      Thyroid hormone receptor localization in target tissues

      , ,
      Journal of Endocrinology
      Bioscientifica

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          Abstract

          The thyroid hormone receptors, TRα1, TRβ1 and other subtypes, are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that mediate the action of thyroid hormone signaling in numerous tissues to regulate important physiological and developmental processes. Their most well-characterized role is as ligand-dependent transcription factors; TRs bind thyroid hormone response elements in the presence or absence of thyroid hormone to facilitate the expression of target genes. Although primarily residing in the nucleus, TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We have identified multiple nuclear localization signals and nuclear export signals within TRα1 and TRβ1 that interact with importins and exportins, respectively, to mediate translocation across the nuclear envelope. More recently, enigmatic cytoplasmic functions have been ascribed to other TR subtypes, expanding the diversity of the cellular response to thyroid hormone. By integrating data on localization signal motifs, this review provides an overview of the complex interplay between TR’s dynamic transport pathways and thyroid hormone signaling activities. We examine the variation in TR subtype response to thyroid hormone signaling, and what is currently known about regulation of the variety of tissue-specific localization patterns, including targeting to the nucleus, the mitochondria and the inner surface of the plasma membrane.

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          Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.

          Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets.
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            Monocytic cells hyperacetylate chromatin protein HMGB1 to redirect it towards secretion.

            High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin component that, when leaked out by necrotic cells, triggers inflammation. HMGB1 can also be secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages, and functions as a late mediator of inflammation. Secretion of a nuclear protein requires a tightly controlled relocation program. We show here that in all cells HMGB1 shuttles actively between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Monocytes and macrophages acetylate HMGB1 extensively upon activation with lipopolysaccharide; moreover, forced hyperacetylation of HMGB1 in resting macrophages causes its relocalization to the cytosol. Cytosolic HMGB1 is then concentrated by default into secretory lysosomes, and secreted when monocytic cells receive an appropriate second signal.
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              Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action.

              Our understanding of thyroid hormone action has been substantially altered by recent clinical observations of thyroid signaling defects in syndromes of hormone resistance and in a broad range of conditions, including profound mental retardation, obesity, metabolic disorders, and a number of cancers. The mechanism of thyroid hormone action has been informed by these clinical observations as well as by animal models and has influenced the way we view the role of local ligand availability; tissue and cell-specific thyroid hormone transporters, corepressors, and coactivators; thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoform-specific action; and cross-talk in metabolic regulation and neural development. In some cases, our new understanding has already been translated into therapeutic strategies, especially for treating hyperlipidemia and obesity, and other drugs are in development to treat cardiac disease and cancer and to improve cognitive function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Endocrinology
                Bioscientifica
                0022-0795
                1479-6805
                April 2018
                April 2018
                April 2018
                April 2018
                : 237
                : 1
                : R19-R34
                Article
                10.1530/JOE-17-0708
                5843491
                29440347
                9c0c9d8d-f9c5-40f6-bc29-660d804dedd8
                © 2018

                Free to read

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