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      On the Association of High GFR with Cardiovascular-Renal Damage

      , , *

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Cardiovascular risk

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          Most cited references 6

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          Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis.

          Chronic kidney disease is characterised by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria, and is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether these risks are modified by diabetes is unknown. We did a meta-analysis of studies selected according to Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium criteria. Data transfer and analyses were done between March, 2011, and June, 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with eGFR and albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. We analysed data for 1,024,977 participants (128,505 with diabetes) from 30 general population and high-risk cardiovascular cohorts and 13 chronic kidney disease cohorts. In the combined general population and high-risk cohorts with data for all-cause mortality, 75,306 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 8·5 years (SD 5·0). In the 23 studies with data for cardiovascular mortality, 21,237 deaths occurred from cardiovascular disease during a mean follow-up of 9·2 years (SD 4·9). In the general and high-risk cohorts, mortality risks were 1·2-1·9 times higher for participants with diabetes than for those without diabetes across the ranges of eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). With fixed eGFR and ACR reference points in the diabetes and no diabetes groups, HR of mortality outcomes according to lower eGFR and higher ACR were much the same in participants with and without diabetes (eg, for all-cause mortality at eGFR 45 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) [vs 95 mL/min per 1·73 m(2)], HR 1·35; 95% CI 1·18-1·55; vs 1·33; 1·19-1·48 and at ACR 30 mg/g [vs 5 mg/g], 1·50; 1·35-1·65 vs 1·52; 1·38-1·67). The overall interactions were not significant. We identified much the same findings for ESRD in the chronic kidney disease cohorts. Despite higher risks for mortality and ESRD in diabetes, the relative risks of these outcomes by eGFR and ACR are much the same irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, emphasising the importance of kidney disease as a predictor of clinical outcomes. US National Kidney Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Glomerular hyperfiltration predicts the development of microalbuminuria in stage 1 hypertension: the HARVEST.

            Factors related to the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension are not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate whether glomerular hyperfiltration precedes the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension. We assessed 502 never-treated subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension without microalbuminuria at baseline and followed up for 7.8 years. Creatinine clearance was measured at entry. Urinary albumin and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at entry and during the follow-up until subjects developed sustained hypertension needing antihypertensive treatment. Subjects with hyperfiltration (creatinine clearance >150 ml/min/1.73 m2, top quintile of the distribution) were younger and heavier than the rest of the group and had a greater follow-up increase in urinary albumin than subjects with normal filtration (P<0.001). In multivariable linear regression, creatinine clearance adjusted for confounders was a strong independent predictor of final urinary albumin (P<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression, patients with hyperfiltration had an adjusted hazard ratio for the development of microalbuminuria based on at least one positive measurement of 4.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-7.4, P<0.001) and an adjusted hazard ratio for the development of microalbuminuria based on two consecutive positive measurements of 4.4 (95% CI, 2.1-9.2, P<0.001), as compared with patients with normal filtration. Age, female gender, and 24 h systolic blood pressure were other significant predictors of microalbuminuria. In conclusion, stage 1 hypertensive subjects with glomerular hyperfiltration are at increased risk of developing microalbuminuria. Early intervention with medical therapy may be beneficial in these subjects even if their blood pressure falls below normal limits during follow-up.
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              Subclinical cardiovascular disease is associated with a high glomerular filtration rate in the nondiabetic general population

              A reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence indicates that a high GFR may also be a cardiovascular risk factor. This issue remains unresolved due to a lack of longitudinal studies of manifest cardiovascular disease with precise GFR measurements. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study of the relationship between high GFR measured as iohexol clearance and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey in Tromsø 6 (RENIS-T6), a representative sample of the middle-aged general population. A total of 1521 persons without cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or micro- or macroalbuminuria were examined with carotid ultrasonography and electrocardiography. The GFR in the highest quartile was associated with an increased odds ratio of having total carotid plaque area greater than the median of non-zero values (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.39) or electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.38) compared to the lowest quartile. The analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, urinary albumin excretion, and fasting serum glucose. Thus, high GFR is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy and should be investigated as a possible risk factor for manifest cardiovascular disease in longitudinal studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2014
                December 2014
                20 November 2014
                : 38
                : 2
                : 108
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine (DIMED), Nephrology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                Author notes
                *Lorenzo A. CalB, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine (DIMED), Nephrology, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2, IT-35128 Padova (Italy), E-Mail renzcalo@unipd.it
                Article
                368158 Blood Purif 2014;38:108
                10.1159/000368158
                25412629
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 1
                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Cardiovascular risk

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