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      Control of the Transcription of the Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Somatostatin Genes by Sex Steroids

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          Abstract

          The growth hormone (GH)-secretory pattern is markedly sexually dimorphic in the adult rat. These secretory patterns change significantly throughout development, becoming different between the sexes only after pubertal onset. This observation suggests that pubertal sex steroids play an important role in the manifestation of this phenomenon. The neonatal steroid environment has also been shown to be intricately involved in the generation of the final adult GH-secretory pattern, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain less known. We have addressed the question as to whether the developmental changes in the GH-secretory pattern are correlated with changes in the hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate GHs release from the anterior pituitary, i.e. somatostatin (SS) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). In addition, the effects of neonatal testosterone and adult testosterone treatments on these two neuropeptide systems have been studied. We have found that the synthetic capacity, as reflected in relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA), of both SS and GHRH neurons changes throughout development in both sexes and that they are sexually dimorphic at specific times during maturation. Furthermore, these mRNA levels can be modulated by changes in postpubertal testosterone levels. Preliminary studies indicate that the neonatal sex steroid environment also influences both GHRH and SS neurons. These studies suggest that both the neonatal and adult sex steroid environments influence the adult GH-secretory pattern, at least in part, by modulating GHRH and SS neurons.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-5924-9
          978-3-318-01776-2
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          1993
          1993
          05 December 2008
          : 40
          : 1-3
          : 48-53
          Affiliations
          aUniversidad Autónoma, Hospital Infantil del Niño Jesús, e bInstituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, España
          Article
          183767 Horm Res 1993;40:48–53
          10.1159/000183767
          7905456
          © 1993 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Categories
          Session II: Pathophysiology of GH

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