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      Assessing Wheat Traits by Spectral Reflectance: Do We Really Need to Focus on Predicted Trait-Values or Directly Identify the Elite Genotypes Group?

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          Abstract

          Phenotyping, via remote and proximal sensing techniques, of the agronomic and physiological traits associated with yield potential and drought adaptation could contribute to improvements in breeding programs. In the present study, 384 genotypes of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) were tested under fully irrigated (FI) and water stress (WS) conditions. The following traits were evaluated and assessed via spectral reflectance: Grain yield (GY), spikes per square meter (SM2), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), chlorophyll content (SPAD), stem water soluble carbohydrate concentration and content (WSC and WSCC, respectively), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ 13C), and leaf area index (LAI). The performances of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs), four regression algorithms (PCR, PLSR, ridge regression RR, and SVR), and three classification methods (PCA-LDA, PLS-DA, and kNN) were evaluated for the prediction of each trait. For the classification approaches, two classes were established for each trait: The lower 80% of the trait variability range (Class 1) and the remaining 20% (Class 2 or elite genotypes). Both the SRIs and regression methods performed better when data from FI and WS were combined. The traits that were best estimated by SRIs and regression methods were GY and Δ 13C. For most traits and conditions, the estimations provided by RR and SVR were the same, or better than, those provided by the SRIs. PLS-DA showed the best performance among the categorical methods and, unlike the SRI and regression models, most traits were relatively well-classified within a specific hydric condition (FI or WS), proving that classification approach is an effective tool to be explored in future studies related to genotype selection.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Wheat.

           P. Shewry (2008)
          Wheat is the dominant crop in temperate countries being used for human food and livestock feed. Its success depends partly on its adaptability and high yield potential but also on the gluten protein fraction which confers the viscoelastic properties that allow dough to be processed into bread, pasta, noodles, and other food products. Wheat also contributes essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, and beneficial phytochemicals and dietary fibre components to the human diet, and these are particularly enriched in whole-grain products. However, wheat products are also known or suggested to be responsible for a number of adverse reactions in humans, including intolerances (notably coeliac disease) and allergies (respiratory and food). Current and future concerns include sustaining wheat production and quality with reduced inputs of agrochemicals and developing lines with enhanced quality for specific end-uses, notably for biofuels and human nutrition.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                09 March 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Plant Breeding and Phenomic Center, PIEI Adaptación de la Agricultura al Cambio Climático, Universidad de Talca Talca, Chile
                2CRI-Quilamapu, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Chillán, Chile
                3Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad de Talca Curicó, Chile
                Author notes

                Edited by: Edmundo Acevedo, University of Chile, Chile

                Reviewed by: Hamid Khazaei, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; Luis Morales-Salinas, University of Chile, Chile

                *Correspondence: Gustavo A. Lobos globosp@ 123456utalca.cl

                This article was submitted to Crop Science and Horticulture, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2017.00280
                5343032
                Copyright © 2017 Garriga, Romero-Bravo, Estrada, Escobar, Matus, del Pozo, Astudillo and Lobos.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 12, Words: 9159
                Funding
                Funded by: Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica 10.13039/501100002848
                Funded by: Fondo de Fomento al Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico 10.13039/501100008736
                Funded by: Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico 10.13039/501100002850
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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