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      Public health insurance and mortality in the older population: Evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

      , , , , ,
      Health Policy
      Elsevier BV

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          A Proportional Hazards Model for the Subdistribution of a Competing Risk

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            The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study.

            A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions of primary care, and primary care workforce development; and four dimensions of primary care service-delivery process: accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care. The primary care dimensions were operationalised by a total of 77 indicators for which data were collected in 31 countries. Data sources included national and international literature, governmental publications, statistical databases, and experts' consultations. Countries with relatively strong primary care are Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Countries either have many primary care policies and regulations in place, combined with good financial coverage and resources, and adequate primary care workforce conditions, or have consistently only few of these primary care structures in place. There is no correlation between the access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness of primary care of countries. Variation is shown in the strength of primary care across Europe, indicating a discrepancy in the responsibility given to primary care in national and international policy initiatives and the needed investments in primary care to solve, for example, future shortages of workforce. Countries are consistent in their primary care focus on all important structure dimensions. Countries need to improve their primary care information infrastructure to facilitate primary care performance management.
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              Measuring the quality of medical care. A clinical method.

              We outline the implementation of a new method of measuring the quality of medical care that counts cases of unnecessary disease and disability and unnecessary untimely deaths. First of all, conditions are listed in which the occurrence of a single case of disease or disability or a single untimely death would justify asking, "Why did it happen?" Secondly, we have selected conditions in which critical increases in rates of disease, disability, or untimely death could serve as indexes of the quality of care. Finally, broad categories of illness are noted in which redefinition and intensive study might reveal characteristics that could serve as indexes of health. We describe how these inth of the general population and the effects of economic, political, and other environmental factors upon it, and to evaluate the quality of medical care provided both within and without the hospital to maintain health and to prevent and treat disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Health Policy
                Health Policy
                Elsevier BV
                01688510
                March 2022
                March 2022
                : 126
                : 3
                : 190-196
                Article
                10.1016/j.healthpol.2022.01.014
                35140017
                9c3bc4f2-02ce-429c-8671-e89ef2f46c7e
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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