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      Chronic Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production Aggravates Diabetic Nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats

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          Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a role in diabetic nephropathy, but the molecular basis for this effect remains unclear. Method: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty spontaneous diabetic rat models were used along with Long-Evans Tokushima Otuska rat models as age-matched controls. Either L-arginine (a NO precursor) or L-NAME (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was administered from the age of 22 weeks. Clinical parameters and serum and urinary NO<sub>2</sub>+NO<sub>3</sub> levels were measured, in addition to renal histological findings and ED-1-positive cell counts in glomeruli. Results: There were no significant differences in creatinine clearance between any of the groups at any point. The levels of urinary NO<sub>2</sub>+NO<sub>3</sub> in the diabetic group were significantly lower than those in the control groups after 40 weeks; that in the L-NAME diabetic group was significantly lower than in the other diabetic groups at 52 weeks. Compared with the other diabetic groups, the L-NAME diabetic group had significantly higher urinary protein excretion levels, histological scores, and numbers of ED-1-positive cells in glomeruli. Diabetic rats administered L-arginine excreted more urinary protein than the diabetic controls. Conclusion: Diabetic nephropathy was exacerbated drastically by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and mildly by a NO precursor. These data suggested that NO may modify type 2 diabetic nephropathy in Otuska Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats through factors other than hemodynamics.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Superoxide anion is involved in the breakdown of endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factor.

          Endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factor (EDRF) is a humoral agent that is released by vascular endothelium and mediates vasodilator responses induced by various substances including acetylcholine and bradykinin. EDRF is very unstable, with a half-life of between 6 and 50 s, and is clearly distinguishable from prostacyclin. The chemical structure of EDRF is unknown but it has been suggested that it is either a hydroperoxy- or free radical-derivative of arachidonic acid or an unstable aldehyde, ketone or lactone. We have examined the role of superoxide anion (O-2) in the inactivation of EDRF released from vascular endothelial cells cultured on microcarrier beads and bioassayed using a cascade of superfused aortic smooth muscle strips. With this system, we have now demonstrated that EDRF is protected from breakdown by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu2+, but not by catalase, and is inactivated by Fe2+. These findings indicate that O-2 contributes significantly to the instability of EDRF.
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            Spontaneous long-term hyperglycemic rat with diabetic complications. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) strain.

             T Natori,  K Kawano,  S Mori (1992)
            A spontaneously diabetic rat with polyuria, polydipsia, and mild obesity was discovered in 1984 in an outbred colony of Long-Evans rats, which had been purchased from Charles River Canada (St. Constant, Quebec, Canada) in 1982. A strain of rats developed from this rat by selective breeding has since been maintained at the Tokushima Research Institute (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokushima, Japan) and named OLETF. The characteristic features of OLETF rats are 1) late onset of hyperglycemia (after 18 wk of age); 2) a chronic course of disease; 3) mild obesity; 4) inheritance by males; 5) hyperplastic foci of pancreatic islets; and 6) renal complication (nodular lesions). Histologically, the changes of pancreatic islets can be classified into three stages: 1) an early stage (6-20 wk of age) of cellular infiltration and degeneration; 2) a hyperplastic stage (20-40 wk of age); and 3) a final stage (at > 40 wk of age). These clinical and pathological features of disease in OLETF rats resemble those of human NIDDM.
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              Oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase in rat diabetic nephropathy: effects of ACEI and ARB.

              Angiotensin II (Ang II) can up-regulate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase, whose product superoxide anion (O2-) can interact with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). We tested the hypothesis that Ang II subtype 1 (AT1) receptor activation enhances oxidative stress and nitrotyrosine deposition in the kidneys of rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). After two weeks of streptozotocin-induced DM, rats received either no treatment, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) for two weeks. At four weeks, renal expression of the p47phox component of NAD(P)H oxidase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and nitrotyrosine were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry and related to plasma lipid peroxidation products (LPO), hydrogen peroxide production in the kidney and 24-hour protein excretion. Immunoreactive expression of p47phox and eNOS were increased in DM with an increase in plasma LPO, renal hydrogen peroxide production and nitrotyrosine deposition. Expression of nNOS was unaltered. Treatment with either ACEI or ARB prevented all these findings and also prevented significant microalbuminuria. The treatments did not affect the elevated blood sugar, nor did DM or its treatment affect the blood pressure or the creatinine clearance. Early proteinuric diabetic nephropathy increases renal expression of the p47phox component of NAD(P)H oxidase and eNOS with increased indices of systemic and renal oxidative/nitrosative stress. An ACEI or an ARB prevents these changes and prevents the development of proteinuria, independent of blood pressure or blood sugar. This finding indicates a pathogenic role for AT1 receptors in the development of oxidative damage in the kidneys during early DM.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : p12-p22
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
                93276 Nephron Physiol 2006;104:p12–p22
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 10, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 1
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