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      Neuroinflammation and microglial activation in Alzheimer disease: where do we go from here?

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      Nature Reviews Neurology
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d9629441e69">Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease, estimated to contribute 60-70% of all cases of dementia worldwide. According to the prevailing amyloid cascade hypothesis, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain is the initiating event in AD, although evidence is accumulating that this hypothesis is insufficient to explain many aspects of AD pathogenesis. The discovery of increased levels of inflammatory markers in patients with AD and the identification of AD risk genes associated with innate immune functions suggest that neuroinflammation has a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD. In this Review, we discuss the interrelationships between neuroinflammation and amyloid and tau pathologies as well as the effect of neuroinflammation on the disease trajectory in AD. We specifically focus on microglia as major players in neuroinflammation and discuss the spatial and temporal variations in microglial phenotypes that are observed under different conditions. We also consider how these cells could be modulated as a therapeutic strategy for AD. </p>

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          Most cited references241

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          The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease

          The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association charged a workgroup with the task of revising the 1984 criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The workgroup sought to ensure that the revised criteria would be flexible enough to be used by both general healthcare providers without access to neuropsychological testing, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid measures, and specialized investigators involved in research or in clinical trial studies who would have these tools available. We present criteria for all-cause dementia and for AD dementia. We retained the general framework of probable AD dementia from the 1984 criteria. On the basis of the past 27 years of experience, we made several changes in the clinical criteria for the diagnosis. We also retained the term possible AD dementia, but redefined it in a manner more focused than before. Biomarker evidence was also integrated into the diagnostic formulations for probable and possible AD dementia for use in research settings. The core clinical criteria for AD dementia will continue to be the cornerstone of the diagnosis in clinical practice, but biomarker evidence is expected to enhance the pathophysiological specificity of the diagnosis of AD dementia. Much work lies ahead for validating the biomarker diagnosis of AD dementia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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            Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia

            A reactive astrocyte subtype termed A1 is induced after injury or disease of the central nervous system and subsequently promotes the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes.
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              Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes

              Eighty-three brains obtained at autopsy from nondemented and demented individuals were examined for extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes. The distribution pattern and packing density of amyloid deposits turned out to be of limited significance for differentiation of neuropathological stages. Neurofibrillary changes occurred in the form of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. The distribution of neuritic plaques varied widely not only within architectonic units but also from one individual to another. Neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, in contrast, exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern permitting the differentiation of six stages. The first two stages were characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre-alpha (transentorhinal stages I-II). The two forms of limbic stages (stages III-IV) were marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre-alpha in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector. The hallmark of the two isocortical stages (stages V-VI) was the destruction of virtually all isocortical association areas. The investigation showed that recognition of the six stages required qualitative evaluation of only a few key preparations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Nature Reviews Neurology
                Nat Rev Neurol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-4758
                1759-4766
                December 14 2020
                Article
                10.1038/s41582-020-00435-y
                33318676
                9c4f0395-538b-42cf-8f86-515df9a92d40
                © 2020

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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