To investigate the characteristics of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni) in household dust in urban household environment of Chengdu, China, 90 household dust samples were collected from 6 districts of the city. The information of houses and residents were also recorded during dust sampling to identify the correlations between heavy metals in household dust and the house attributes. And also the principal component analysis and cluster analysis for sources and impactor factors. The concentrations of Pb (123mg·kg-1), Zn (675mg·kg-1), Cu (190mg·kg-1), Cr (82.7mg·kg-1), Cd (2.37mg·kg-1) and Ni (52.6mg·kg-1) in household dust are in low or moderate levels when compare with that from other counties or areas. The heavy metals of household dust samples from Chengdu is higher concentrations than that in the street dust from Chengdu, except for Cr. Statistical analysis result showed traffic sources and corrosion of alloys are important factors contributing to the rise concentrations of heavy metals in household dust. In addition, there is negative correlation (p<0.05) between the heavy metals concentrations and floor levels. The ingestion is the important pathway for Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni via household dust exposure to the residents, and the dermal contact was identified as a main route for Cr and Cd in household dust exposure to the residents. There are minor non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from the heavy metals in household dust for the residents in Chengdu.