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      Unravelling the origin and introduction pattern of the tropical species Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Caprellidae) in temperate European waters: first molecular insights from a spatial and temporal perspective

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          Abstract

          Paracaprellapusilla Mayer, 1890 is a tropical caprellid species recently introduced to the Eastern Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we used direct sequencing of mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (28S and ITS) genes to compare genetic differences in presumed native and introduced populations in order to infer its introduction pattern and to shed light on the native range of this species. The temporal pattern of genetic diversity at the westernmost limit of the geographic range of P.pusilla in Europe (the Atlantic coast of southern Spain) over an eight-year period was also investigated. Our results confirm P.pusilla as a neocosmopolitan species and suggest that the species is native to the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. Paracaprellapusilla seems to have been introduced into European waters from multiple introduction pathways and source populations, which are likely to include populations from coastal waters of Brazil. Multiple introduction pathways may have been involved, with the most important being commercial shipping through the Strait of Gibraltar. While this tropical species appears to be expanding in the Mediterranean, populations from the westernmost limit of its geographic range in Europe showed a temporal instability. This study constitutes the first molecular approach focused on this species, but it is also the first study of temporal change in genetic diversity of any introduced marine amphipod. Additional intensive sampling of this species, including both native and non-native populations, and detailed temporal studies are still necessary to properly understand how genetic diversity influences the introduction and survival of P.pusilla in invaded areas.

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          The genetics of inbreeding depression.

          Inbreeding depression - the reduced survival and fertility of offspring of related individuals - occurs in wild animal and plant populations as well as in humans, indicating that genetic variation in fitness traits exists in natural populations. Inbreeding depression is important in the evolution of outcrossing mating systems and, because intercrossing inbred strains improves yield (heterosis), which is important in crop breeding, the genetic basis of these effects has been debated since the early twentieth century. Classical genetic studies and modern molecular evolutionary approaches now suggest that inbreeding depression and heterosis are predominantly caused by the presence of recessive deleterious mutations in populations.
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            The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

            The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea), western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1).
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              Paradox lost: genetic diversity and the success of aquatic invasions.

              There is mounting evidence that reduced genetic diversity in invasive populations is not as commonplace as expected. Recent studies indicate that high propagule vectors, such as ballast water and shellfish transplantations, and multiple introductions contribute to the elimination of founder effects in the majority of successful aquatic invasions. Multiple introductions, in particular, can promote range expansion of introduced populations through both genetic and demographic mechanisms. Closely related to vectors and corridors of introduction, propagule pressure can play an important role in determining the genetic outcome of introduction events. Even low-diversity introductions have numerous means of avoiding the negative impact of diversity loss. The interaction of high propagule vectors and multiple introductions reveal important patterns associated with invasion success and deserve closer scrutiny.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                June 20 2019
                June 20 2019
                : 47
                : 43-80
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.47.32408
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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