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      Language prediction mechanisms in human auditory cortex

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Spoken language, both perception and production, is thought to be facilitated by an ensemble of predictive mechanisms. We obtain intracranial recordings in 37 patients using depth probes implanted along the anteroposterior extent of the supratemporal plane during rhythm listening, speech perception, and speech production. These reveal two predictive mechanisms in early auditory cortex with distinct anatomical and functional characteristics. The first, localized to bilateral Heschl’s gyri and indexed by low-frequency phase, predicts the timing of acoustic events. The second, localized to planum temporale only in language-dominant cortex and indexed by high-gamma power, shows a transient response to acoustic stimuli that is uniquely suppressed during speech production. Chronometric stimulation of Heschl’s gyrus selectively disrupts speech perception, while stimulation of planum temporale selectively disrupts speech production. This work illuminates the fundamental acoustic infrastructure—both architecture and function—for spoken language, grounding cognitive models of speech perception and production in human neurobiology.

          Abstract

          The human brain fluently parses continuous speech during perception and production. Using direct brain recordings coupled with stimulation, the authors identify separable substrates underlying two distinct predictive mechanisms of “when” in Heschl’s gyrus and “what” in planum temporale.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language.

          Despite intensive work on language-brain relations, and a fairly impressive accumulation of knowledge over the last several decades, there has been little progress in developing large-scale models of the functional anatomy of language that integrate neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and psycholinguistic data. Drawing on relatively recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, we propose a new framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language which moves towards remedying this situation. The framework posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventro-laterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex (posterior middle temporal gyrus) which serves as an interface between sound-based representations of speech in the superior temporal gyrus (again bilaterally) and widely distributed conceptual representations. The dorsal stream projects dorso-posteriorly involving a region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt), and ultimately projecting to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of "parity" between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the proposed dorsal stream represents a very tight connection between processes involved in speech perception and speech production, it does not appear to be a critical component of the speech perception process under normal (ecologically natural) listening conditions, that is, when speech input is mapped onto a conceptual representation. We also propose some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways. We discuss some recent empirical tests of this framework that utilize a range of methods. We also show how damage to different components of this framework can account for the major symptom clusters of the fluent aphasias, and discuss some recent evidence concerning how sentence-level processing might be integrated into the framework.
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            Dynamics of ongoing activity: explanation of the large variability in evoked cortical responses.

            Evoked activity in the mammalian cortex and the resulting behavioral responses exhibit a large variability to repeated presentations of the same stimulus. This study examined whether the variability can be attributed to ongoing activity. Ongoing and evoked spatiotemporal activity patterns in the cat visual cortex were measured with real-time optical imaging; local field potentials and discharges of single neurons were recorded simultaneously, by electrophysiological techniques. The evoked activity appeared deterministic, and the variability resulted from the dynamics of ongoing activity, presumably reflecting the instantaneous state of cortical networks. In spite of the large variability, evoked responses in single trials could be predicted by linear summation of the deterministic response and the preceding ongoing activity. Ongoing activity must play an important role in cortical function and cannot be ignored in exploration of cognitive processes.
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              The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory

               R.C. Oldfield (1971)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nitin.tandon@uth.tmc.edu
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                16 October 2020
                16 October 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.267308.8, ISNI 0000 0000 9206 2401, Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, , McGovern Medical School, ; Houston, TX USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.266093.8, ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7243, Department of Cognitive Sciences, , University of California, ; Irvine, CA USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.416986.4, ISNI 0000 0001 2296 6154, Memorial Hermann Hospital, , Texas Medical Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                Article
                19010
                10.1038/s41467-020-19010-6
                7567874
                33067457
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                neural encoding, language, cortex

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