In this article we compare solo self-employment in Germany and the Netherlands. We identify parallels and differences in the structure of solo self-employment and examine to what extent self-employment is related to a precarious situation in terms of earnings and social security. The results show that solo self-employed workers are relatively vulnerable in terms of income and disability insurance in both countries. As compared to the Netherlands, German solo self-employed workers seem to have a higher risk of precariousness, particularly in terms of income and poverty in old age. The article concludes with recommendations for action that follow from the findings.