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      Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population


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          Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination.


          The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids). Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios.


          Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2%) was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P < 0.001). Of some concern was the discovery that only 30.5% of the endodontically-treated teeth examined met the criteria of an acceptable root canal filling. Inadequately root-filled teeth were associated with an increased AP risk.


          The prevalence of AP and the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth with AP in this Kosovar population are higher than those found in other countries. Inadequate root canal fillings were associated with an increased prevalence of AP.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of endodontic failures.

           Parvathy Nair (2003)
          Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. The treatment of apical periodontitis, as a disease of root canal infection, consists of eradicating microbes or substantially reducing the microbial load from the root canal and preventing re-infection by orthograde root filling. The treatment has a remarkably high degree of success. Nevertheless, endodontic treatment can fail. Most failures occur when treatment procedures, mostly of a technical nature, have not reached a satisfactory standard for the control and elimination of infection. Even when the highest standards and the most careful procedures are followed, failures still occur. This is because there are root canal regions that cannot be cleaned and obturated with existing equipments, materials, and techniques, and thus, infection can persist. In very rare cases, there are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The data on the biological causes of endodontic failures are recent and scattered in various journals. This communication is meant to provide a comprehensive overview of the etio-pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of failed endodontic treatments that can be visualized in radiographs as asymptomatic post-treatment periapical radiolucencies.
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            Influence of coronal restorations on the periapical health of endodontically treated teeth.

            The purpose of the study was to evaluate a possible relationship between the quality of the coronal restoration, the root canal obturation and the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth. Full mouth series of radiographs from randomly selected patient charts at the Dental Faculty, University of Oslo were examined. A total of 1001 endodontically treated teeth restored with a permanent restoration were evaluated independently by two examiners. According to a predetermined set of radiographic criteria, the technical quality of the root filling of each tooth was scored as either good (GE) or poor (PE), and the technical quality of the coronal restoration was scored as good (GR) or poor (PR). The root and the surrounding structures were then evaluated and according to the periradicular findings, the treatment was categorized as success or failure. The success rate for all endodontically treated teeth was 67.4% (n = 1001). Teeth with root canal posts had a success rate of 70.7% (n = 527) and teeth without posts had a success rate of 63.6% (n = 472). The two groups with technically good endodontics had the highest success rates. In combination with technically good restorations the success rate was 81% (GE + GR, 81%) and combined with technically poor restorations the success rate was 71% (GE + PR, 71%). The two groups with technically poor endodontics combined with either good restorations or poor restorations had significantly lower success rates (PE + GR, 56% and PE + PR, 57%). The technical quality of the endodontic treatment as judged radiographically was significantly more important than the technical quality of the coronal restoration when the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth was evaluated.
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              Periapical health and treatment quality assessment of root-filled teeth in two Canadian populations.

              The prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and the quality of root fillings and restorations were determined in two Canadian populations differing in avail-ability of endodontists. Radiographs of first-time university patients aged 25-40 years in Toronto and Saskatoon were examined for missing teeth, presence and standard of root fillings, standard of restoration, and AP according to the Periapical Index. Patients with root-filled teeth were invited for clinical examination and interview to inspect the restorations, and to reveal the providers of endodontic treatment and reasons for extractions of missing teeth. Chi-square and independent t-tests interpreted at the 5% significance level were used to examine associations between the prevalence of AP in root-filled teeth and the standard of the root filling, restoration, and providers of treatment. Proportion of patients with root-filled teeth was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Toronto than in Saskatoon (39 and 26%, respectively). Presence of AP about root-filled teeth (44% in Toronto, 51% in Saskatoon) was significantly associated with poor density (OR = 2.7) short (OR = 2.4) and long (OR = 2.8) root fillings, and with poor radiographic quality of the restoration (OR = 1.7) Prevalence of AP did not differ significantly between teeth treated by generalists and endodontists. The prevalence of AP in root-filled and untreated teeth was comparable to that reported in previous methodologically compatible studies. The quality of both the root filling and the restoration were found to impact on the periapical health of root-filled teeth, with the impact of the restoration being most critical when the quality of the root filling was adequate.

                Author and article information

                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central
                29 November 2011
                : 11
                : 32
                [1 ]Department of Dental Pathology and Endodontics, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
                [2 ]Division of Preventive and Operative Dentistry, Endodontics, Pedodontics and Minimally Invasive Dentistry, Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graz, Austria
                Copyright ©2011 Kamberi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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