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      Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Non-Invasive Probe of Kidney Metabolism and Function

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          Major advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods and technology have led to the increased use of this technique to study kidney metabolism and function. These studies include: (1) the identification of organic osmolytes in the renal medulla and their role as potential markers of medullary development and damage; (2) changes in renal epithelial cell organic solute transport, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and (3) the biochemical heterogeneity of the nephron and identification of markers of site-specific renal damage in experimental animals and man. The present review summarises these data with the aim of demonstrating how NMR can be used as an indirect, and non-invasive probe of homeostatic mechanisms in vivo and in vitro.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Inhibition of myo-inositol transport causes acute renal failure with selective medullary injury in the rat.

           M Horio,  S Shimada,  E. Imai (1997)
          Myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte in the renal medulla that is accumulated under hypertonic conditions via the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT). We have recently reported that SMIT is predominantly present in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) and is strongly induced by acute NaCl loading, suggesting an important role of myo-inositol in this nephron segment. In the present study, we sought to examine in vivo effects of inhibition of myo-inositol transport using a transport inhibitor, 2-O, C-methylene-myo-inositol (MMI). Intraperitoneal injection of MMI caused acute renal failure in the rats. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly increased 12 hours after MMI injection. Morphologic study revealed that the tubular cells were extensively injured in the outer medulla. A considerable number of the tubular cells were injured in the cortex as well. Immunohistochemical study for Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which was used for identification of the TAL cells, showed that THP-positive cells were predominantly injured. The tubular injury apparently appeared to worsen when high concentration of NaCl was injected with MMI. Administration of myo-inositol prevented acute renal failure and improved the tubular injury after MMI injection. Furthermore, supplementation of betaine, another osmolyte in the TAL cells, partially prevented the toxic effects of MMI. These results suggest that myo-inositol play a crucial role in the TAL regarding osmoregulation of the cells.
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            Proton nmr studies of betaine excretion in the human neonate: consequences for choline and methyl group supply

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              Model Applicable to NMR Studies for Calculating Flux Rates in Five Cycles Involved in Glutamate Metabolism


                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                October 1998
                11 September 1998
                : 6
                : 5
                : 409-414
                Institute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London Medical School, and Section of Biological Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Division, Imperial College School of Science, Engineering and Medicine, London, UK
                20549 Exp Nephrol 1998;6:409–414
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, References: 38, Pages: 6
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                Functional Insights from Analysis of Biological Fluids


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