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      Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Non-Invasive Probe of Kidney Metabolism and Function

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          Abstract

          Major advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods and technology have led to the increased use of this technique to study kidney metabolism and function. These studies include: (1) the identification of organic osmolytes in the renal medulla and their role as potential markers of medullary development and damage; (2) changes in renal epithelial cell organic solute transport, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and (3) the biochemical heterogeneity of the nephron and identification of markers of site-specific renal damage in experimental animals and man. The present review summarises these data with the aim of demonstrating how NMR can be used as an indirect, and non-invasive probe of homeostatic mechanisms in vivo and in vitro.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Inhibition of myo-inositol transport causes acute renal failure with selective medullary injury in the rat.

           M Horio,  S Shimada,  E. Imai (1997)
          Myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte in the renal medulla that is accumulated under hypertonic conditions via the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT). We have recently reported that SMIT is predominantly present in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) and is strongly induced by acute NaCl loading, suggesting an important role of myo-inositol in this nephron segment. In the present study, we sought to examine in vivo effects of inhibition of myo-inositol transport using a transport inhibitor, 2-O, C-methylene-myo-inositol (MMI). Intraperitoneal injection of MMI caused acute renal failure in the rats. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly increased 12 hours after MMI injection. Morphologic study revealed that the tubular cells were extensively injured in the outer medulla. A considerable number of the tubular cells were injured in the cortex as well. Immunohistochemical study for Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which was used for identification of the TAL cells, showed that THP-positive cells were predominantly injured. The tubular injury apparently appeared to worsen when high concentration of NaCl was injected with MMI. Administration of myo-inositol prevented acute renal failure and improved the tubular injury after MMI injection. Furthermore, supplementation of betaine, another osmolyte in the TAL cells, partially prevented the toxic effects of MMI. These results suggest that myo-inositol play a crucial role in the TAL regarding osmoregulation of the cells.
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            Proton nmr studies of betaine excretion in the human neonate: consequences for choline and methyl group supply

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              • Article: not found

              Model Applicable to NMR Studies for Calculating Flux Rates in Five Cycles Involved in Glutamate Metabolism

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6765-7
                978-3-318-00352-9
                1660-2129
                1998
                October 1998
                11 September 1998
                : 6
                : 5
                : 409-414
                Affiliations
                Institute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London Medical School, and Section of Biological Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Division, Imperial College School of Science, Engineering and Medicine, London, UK
                Article
                20549 Exp Nephrol 1998;6:409–414
                10.1159/000020549
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 38, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20549
                Categories
                Functional Insights from Analysis of Biological Fluids

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