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      Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China Translated title: Importance relative des facteurs météorologiques et géographiques dans la distribution de l’infestation à Fasciola hepatica chez les moutons d’élevage dans la province de Qinghai en Chine

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Fasciola hepatica, Parasite, Meteorological and geographical factors, Risk analysis, Prediction map

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          Abstract

          Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis.

          Translated abstract

          Fasciola hepatica est un important trématode parasite, d’importance économique, qui infeste les moutons et les bovins dans le monde entier. Nous avons mené une enquête détaillée sur la répartition spatiale de l’infestation par F. hepatica chez des moutons d’élevage dans la province de Qinghai (Wutumeiren), en Chine continentale. La modélisation mathématique a été utilisée pour évaluer les interrelations entre les facteurs météorologiques et géographiques et le risque d’infestation par F. hepatica dans toute la province. Un test ELISA de capture (MM3-SERO) a été utilisé pour détecter l’infestation par F. hepatica. Un modèle de niche basé sur la méthode de l’entropie maximale (Maxent) a été utilisé pour estimer l’influence des facteurs météorologiques et géographiques sur la répartition spatiale observée de l’infestation par F. hepatica. Les résultats de l’analyse de Jackknife ont indiqué que la température, les précipitations, le rayonnement solaire, l’élévation numérique et la pente étaient associés à l’apparition d’une infestation par F. hepatica et que les taux d’infestation étaient significativement plus élevés chez les animaux provenant de districts où l’habitat des prairies était élevé. Les résultats indiquent que les facteurs météorologiques et géographiques peuvent être des variables importantes affectant la distribution de l’infestation par F. hepatica et devraient être pris en compte dans l’élaboration de futurs programmes de surveillance et de lutte contre la fasciolose.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses.

          Fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. Six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and Fasciolopsis buski (Fasciolidae), Gastrodiscoides hominis (Gastrodiscidae), Watsonius watsoni and Fischoederius elongatus (Paramphistomidae). Whereas F. hepatica and F. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. The fasciolids and the gastrodiscid cause important zoonoses distributed throughout many countries, while W. watsoni and F. elongatus have been only accidentally detected in humans. Present climate and global changes appear to increasingly affect snail-borne helminthiases, which are strongly dependent on environmental factors. Fascioliasis is a good example of an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease in many countries as a consequence of many phenomena related to environmental changes as well as man-made modifications. The ability of F. hepatica to spread is related to its capacity to colonise and adapt to new hosts and environments, even at the extreme inhospitality of very high altitude. Moreover, the spread of F. hepatica from its original European range to other continents is related to the geographic expansion of its original European lymnaeid intermediate host species Galba truncatula, the American species Pseudosuccinea columella, and its adaptation to other lymnaeid species authochthonous in the newly colonised areas. Although fasciolopsiasis and gastrodiscoidiasis can be controlled along with other food-borne parasitoses, fasciolopsiasis still remains a public health problem in many endemic areas despite sustained WHO control programmes. Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis, initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.
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            Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control.

            Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re-launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re-emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre-domestication times and the livestock post-domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola spp. are distinguished from local and zonal overlaps in areas where both fasciolids co-exist. Genetic techniques applied to liver flukes in recent years that are useful to elucidate the genetic characteristics of the two fasciolids are reviewed. The intra-specific and inter-specific variabilities of 'pure'F. hepatica and 'pure'F. gigantica were ascertained by means of complete sequences of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) cox1 and nad1 from areas with only one fasciolid species. Fasciolid sequences of the same markers scattered in the literature are reviewed. The definitive haplotypes established appear to fit the proposed global evolutionary scenario. Problems posed by fasciolid cross-breeding, introgression and hybridization in overlap areas are analyzed. Nuclear rDNA appears to correlate with adult fluke characteristics and fasciolid/lymnaeid specificity, whereas mtDNA does not. However, flukes sometimes appear so intermediate that they cannot be ascribed to either F. hepatica-like or F. gigantica-like forms and snail specificity may be opposite to the one deduced from the adult morphotype. The phenotypic characteristics of adults and eggs of 'pure'F. hepatica and F. gigantica, as well as of intermediate forms in overlap areas, are compared, with emphasis on the definitive host influence on egg size in humans. Knowledge is sufficient to support F. hepatica and F. gigantica as two valid species, which recently diverged by adaptation to different pecoran and lymnaeid hosts in areas with differing environmental characteristics. Their phenotypic differences and ancient pre-domestication origins involve a broad geographical area that largely exceeds the typical, more local scenarios known for sub-species units. Phenomena such as abnormal ploidy and aspermic parthenogenesis in hybrids suggest that their separate evolution in pre-domestication times allowed them to achieve almost total genetic isolation. Recent sequencing results suggest that present assumptions on fasciolid-lymnaeid specificity might be wrong. The crucial role of lymnaeids in fascioliasis transmission, epidemiology and control was the reason for launching a worldwide lymnaeid molecular characterization initiative. This initiative has already furnished useful results on several continents. A standardized methodology for fasciolids and lymnaeids is proposed herein in order that future work is undertaken on a comparable basis. A complete understanding of molecular epidemiology is expected to help greatly in designing global actions and local interventions for control of fascioliasis.
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              Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites.

               R Poulin (2005)
              Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic consequences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have compiled experimental data on the effect of temperature on the emergence of infective stages (cercariae) of trematode parasites from their snail intermediate hosts. Temperature-mediated changes in cercarial output varied widely among trematode species, from small reductions to 200-fold increases in response to a 10 degrees C rise in temperature, with a geometric mean suggesting an almost 8-fold increase. Overall, the observed temperature-mediated increases in cercarial output are much more substantial than those expected from basic physiological processes, for which 2- to 3-fold increases are normally seen. Some of the most extreme increases in cercarial output may be artefacts of the methods used in the original studies; however, exclusion of these extreme values has little impact on the preceding conclusion. Across both species values and phylogenetically independent contrasts, neither the magnitude of the initial cercarial output nor the shell size of the snail host correlated with the relative increase in cercarial production mediated by rising temperature. In contrast, the latitude from which the snail-trematode association originated correlated negatively with temperature-mediated increases in cercarial production: within the 20 degrees to 55 degrees latitude range, trematodes from lower latitudes showed more pronounced temperature-driven increases in cercarial output than those from higher latitudes. These results suggest that the small increases in air and water temperature forecast by many climate models will not only influence the geographical distribution of some diseases, but may also promote the proliferation of their infective stages in many ecosystems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                21 December 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Veterinary Surgery, Northeast Agricultural University Harbin Heilongjiang 150030 PR China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jhxiao1970@ 123456163.com
                Article
                parasite160074 10.1051/parasite/2016070
                10.1051/parasite/2016070
                5178382
                28000591
                © H. Qin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article

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