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      Re-response to tolvaptan after furosemide dose reduction in a patient with refractory ascites


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          Tolvaptan is a new drug used for treating ascites induced by liver cirrhosis, and it is covered by health insurance in Japan. In the present report, we describe the case of a 74-year-old man with type C liver cirrhosis and refractory ascites. He was receiving furosemide and spironolactone daily, but still required repeat puncture for ascites removal. Administration of tolvaptan (3.75 mg/day) was started in addition to his existing medications, and was subsequently increased to 7.5 mg/day. However, after 2 months, the ascites again exacerbated. Nevertheless, after we discontinued the administration of furosemide, the tolvaptan became effective. This may be because furosemide administration decreases urine osmolality, resulting in a non-response to tolvaptan.

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          Short-term clinical effects of tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin antagonist, in patients hospitalized for heart failure: the EVEREST Clinical Status Trials.

          Heart failure causes more than 1 million US hospitalizations yearly, mostly related to congestion. Tolvaptan, an oral, nonpeptide, selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, shows promise in this condition. To evaluate short-term effects of tolvaptan when added to standard therapy in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Two identical prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials at 359 sites in North America, South America, and Europe were conducted during the inpatient period of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST) between October 7, 2003, and February 3, 2006. A total of 2048 (trial A) and 2085 (trial B) patients hospitalized with heart failure and congestion were studied. Patients were randomized to receive either tolvaptan (30 mg/d) or matching placebo, within 48 hours of admission. Primary end point was a composite of changes in global clinical status based on a visual analog scale and body weight at day 7 or discharge if earlier. Secondary end points included dyspnea (day 1), global clinical status (day 7 or discharge), body weight (days 1 and 7 or discharge), and peripheral edema (day 7 or discharge). Rank sum analysis of the composite primary end point showed greater improvement with tolvaptan vs placebo (trial A, mean [SD], 1.06 [0.43] vs 0.99 [0.44]; and trial B, 1.07 [0.42] vs 0.97 [0.43]; both trials P<.001). Mean (SD) body weight reduction was greater with tolvaptan on day 1 (trial A, 1.71 [1.80] vs 0.99 [1.83] kg; P<.001; and trial B, 1.82 [2.01] vs 0.95 [1.85] kg; P<.001) and day 7 or discharge (trial A, 3.35 [3.27] vs 2.73 [3.34] kg; P<.001; and trial B, 3.77 [3.59] vs 2.79 [3.46] kg; P<.001), whereas improvements in global clinical status were not different between groups. More patients receiving tolvaptan (684 [76.7%] and 678 [72.1%] for trial A and trial B, respectively) vs patients receiving placebo (646 [70.6%] and 597 [65.3%], respectively) reported improvement in dyspnea at day 1 (both trials P<.001). Edema at day 7 or discharge improved significantly with tolvaptan in trial B (P = .02) but did not reach significance in trial A (P = .07). Serious adverse event frequencies were similar between groups, without excess renal failure or hypotension. In patients hospitalized with heart failure, oral tolvaptan in addition to standard therapy including diuretics improved many, though not all, heart failure signs and symptoms, without serious adverse events. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00071331
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            Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).

            Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients.
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              Tolvaptan for improvement of hepatic edema: A phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

              Hepatic edema is manifested by ascites, lower limb edema and intolerable symptoms. Some patients insufficiently respond to the conventional diuretic therapy. Therefore, a novel therapeutic option is required. We conducted a phase 3 study to confirm therapeutic effect of tolvaptan on hepatic edema associated with liver cirrhosis.

                Author and article information

                81-836-22-2239 , terais@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp
                Clin J Gastroenterol
                Clin J Gastroenterol
                Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
                Springer Japan (Tokyo )
                5 December 2014
                5 December 2014
                : 8
                : 1
                : 47-51
                [ ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hagi Civil Hospital, Tsubaki 3460-3, Hagi, Yamaguchi 758-0061 Japan
                [ ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 Japan
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                : 16 September 2014
                : 20 November 2014
                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Japan 2015

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                tolvaptan,vasopressin v2-receptor antagonist,liver cirrhosis,refractory ascites,urine osmolality


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