High-altitude island environments, with their characteristic strong seasonal contrast and limited resources, are challenging contexts for human subsistence. However, although archaeological contexts in this kind of setting hold great potential to explore the diversity of human biological and cultural adaptations, such sites are rare. In this paper, we present the results of a microcontextual geoarchaeological study carried out at Roques de García Rockshelter, the highest altitude cave archaeological site in the Canary Islands (Spain). The site was inhabited by the aboriginal population of the island and has yielded a rich archaeological context derived from combustion activity. We carried out soil micromorphology to characterize site function and lipid biomarker analysis to investigate the natural and anthropogenic organic record. Our data indicate that the aboriginal groups that occupied the site kept goats with them (in the rockshelter) and probably used Juniperus turbinata (sabina) wood, a current distant fuel source. These results suggest that the aboriginal societies of Tenerife occupied the highlands regularly, taking their herds and firewood with them. Further research is necessary to explore the use and exploitation of fuel sources, the seasonality of these occupations and their differences with lowland sites.