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      Five-year comparison of diabetic control between community diabetic center and primary health-care centers

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          Abstract

          Context:

          Hyperglycemia is the most important factor for development of complications. A high level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is linked with such complications of diabetes.

          Aims:

          The aim of this study was to compare diabetic care between community diabetic center (CDC) and primary health centers.

          Settings and Design:

          This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City for National Guard Health Affairs at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

          Subjects and Methods:

          Data were retrieved from electronic medical records for diabetes mellitus Type 2 patients who were treated at two settings: CDCs and primary healthcare.

          Statistical Analysis Used:

          SPSS (V21) was used to analyze the univariate and bivariate analysis, Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for binary variables were used. P value was set as statistically significant if it is <0.05.

          Results:

          The mean difference for HbA1c from first to last visits increased significantly +0.2 ± 1.67 with P = 0.002 while the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on the other way around improved by decrease of −0.159 ± 0.74 and P < 0.000. Body mass index (BMI) among the sample increased by +0.134 ± 1.57 with no significant, P = 0.078. Among the sample, 39.5% improved their HbA1c while 56.8% deteriorated and 3.6% of the samples’ readings remain the same. 55.3% of the sample improved in LDL and 52.4% in the high-density lipoprotein while 53.7% improved in triglycerides. The BMI was improved among 43.4% of diabetic patients.

          Conclusions:

          The 5-year management of diabetic patients failed to improve the A1c or BMI, at both CDC and primary health-care centers.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group.

           R Turner,  C Fox,  DR Matthews (1998)
          Improved blood-glucose control decreases the progression of diabetic microvascular disease, but the effect on macrovascular complications is unknown. There is concern that sulphonylureas may increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and that high insulin concentrations may enhance atheroma formation. We compared the effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial. 3867 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, median age 54 years (IQR 48-60 years), who after 3 months' diet treatment had a mean of two fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations of 6.1-15.0 mmol/L were randomly assigned intensive policy with a sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or glipizide) or with insulin, or conventional policy with diet. The aim in the intensive group was FPG less than 6 mmol/L. In the conventional group, the aim was the best achievable FPG with diet alone; drugs were added only if there were hyperglycaemic symptoms or FPG greater than 15 mmol/L. Three aggregate endpoints were used to assess differences between conventional and intensive treatment: any diabetes-related endpoint (sudden death, death from hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, amputation [of at least one digit], vitreous haemorrhage, retinopathy requiring photocoagulation, blindness in one eye, or cataract extraction); diabetes-related death (death from myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and sudden death); all-cause mortality. Single clinical endpoints and surrogate subclinical endpoints were also assessed. All analyses were by intention to treat and frequency of hypoglycaemia was also analysed by actual therapy. Over 10 years, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 7.0% (6.2-8.2) in the intensive group compared with 7.9% (6.9-8.8) in the conventional group--an 11% reduction. There was no difference in HbA1c among agents in the intensive group. Compared with the conventional group, the risk in the intensive group was 12% lower (95% CI 1-21, p=0.029) for any diabetes-related endpoint; 10% lower (-11 to 27, p=0.34) for any diabetes-related death; and 6% lower (-10 to 20, p=0.44) for all-cause mortality. Most of the risk reduction in the any diabetes-related aggregate endpoint was due to a 25% risk reduction (7-40, p=0.0099) in microvascular endpoints, including the need for retinal photocoagulation. There was no difference for any of the three aggregate endpoints between the three intensive agents (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or insulin). Patients in the intensive group had more hypoglycaemic episodes than those in the conventional group on both types of analysis (both p<0.0001). The rates of major hypoglycaemic episodes per year were 0.7% with conventional treatment, 1.0% with chlorpropamide, 1.4% with glibenclamide, and 1.8% with insulin. Weight gain was significantly higher in the intensive group (mean 2.9 kg) than in the conventional group (p<0.001), and patients assigned insulin had a greater gain in weight (4.0 kg) than those assigned chlorpropamide (2.6 kg) or glibenclamide (1.7 kg). Intensive blood-glucose control by either sulphonylureas or insulin substantially decreases the risk of microvascular complications, but not macrovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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            Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.

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              • Abstract: found
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              Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.

              Intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near normoglycemia reduces the risk of microvascular and neurologic complications of type 1 diabetes. We studied whether the use of intensive therapy as compared with conventional therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) affected the long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease. The DCCT randomly assigned 1441 patients with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional therapy, treating them for a mean of 6.5 years between 1983 and 1993. Ninety-three percent were subsequently followed until February 1, 2005, during the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Cardiovascular disease (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, confirmed angina, or the need for coronary-artery revascularization) was assessed with standardized measures and classified by an independent committee. During the mean 17 years of follow-up, 46 cardiovascular disease events occurred in 31 patients who had received intensive treatment in the DCCT, as compared with 98 events in 52 patients who had received conventional treatment. Intensive treatment reduced the risk of any cardiovascular disease event by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 9 to 63 percent; P=0.02) and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease by 57 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 79 percent; P=0.02). The decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin values during the DCCT was significantly associated with most of the positive effects of intensive treatment on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria and albuminuria were associated with a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, but differences between treatment groups remained significant (P< or =0.05) after adjusting for these factors. Intensive diabetes therapy has long-term beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Family Med Prim Care
                J Family Med Prim Care
                JFMPC
                Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2249-4863
                2278-7135
                Jul-Sep 2016
                : 5
                : 3
                : 641-645
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Family Medicine and Primary Healthcare, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [2 ] National and Gulf Center for Evidence Based Health Practice, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [3 ] King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [4 ] King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [5 ] Department of Community and Environmental Health, College of Public Health and Health Informatics King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Mazen S. Ferwana, Department of Family Medicine and Primary Healthcare, King Abdelaziz Medical City, MNGHA, PI Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail: Ferwanam@ 123456ngha.med.sa
                Article
                JFMPC-5-641
                10.4103/2249-4863.197316
                5290775
                Copyright: © Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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