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      Multiple Factor Analysis of Depression and/or Anxiety in Patients with Acute Exacerbation Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To reveal the risk factors, the symptom distribution characteristics, the clinical values of white blood cell counts (WBC counts), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) combined with depression and/or anxiety.

          Methods

          The study included prospective cross-sectional and case–control studies, and was executed in the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Guizhou, China. Previously diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who admitted to the hospital with AECOPD, patients with depression and/or anxiety, and healthy people were enrolled in the study. The Hamilton Rating Scales were used to assess all subjects, and the complete blood counts (CBC) were collected. Baseline data and clinical measurement data [spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, and COPD evaluation test (the CAT scale)] from patients with AECOPD were collected.

          Results

          Of the 307 patients with AECOPD included, 63.5% (N=195) had depressive and/or anxiety symptoms, and 36.5% (N=112) had no symptoms. Sex, respiratory failure, number of comorbidities, number of acute exacerbations in the previous year and the CAT score were closely related to AECOPD combined with depression and/or anxiety (p<0.05). The CAT scale score were the independent risk factor (OR=6.576, 95% CI 3.812–11.342) and significant predictor of AECOPD with depression and/or anxiety (AUC=0.790,95% CI 0.740–0.834); the patients with depression and/or anxiety were more severe and characteristic than the patients with AECOPD combined with depression and/or anxiety; RDW was associated with AECOPD with depression and/or anxiety (p=0.020, OR1.212,95% CI1.03–1.426), and had certain clinical diagnostic value (AUC=0.570,95% CI 0.531–0.626).

          Conclusion

          Depression and anxiety should not be ignored in patients with AECOPD. The severity and quality of life of COPD were closely related to the occurrence of depression and/or anxiety symptoms. In most cases, perhaps depression and anxiety in AECOPD are only symptoms and not to the extents of the diseases. RDW had clinical diagnostic value in AECOPD combined with depression and/or anxiety. NLR, PLR, MLR, and RDW may become the novel indicators for evaluating the degree of inflammation of AECOPD and deserve further research.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Role of systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer.

          Disease progression in cancer is dependent on the complex interaction between the tumor and the host inflammatory response. There is substantial evidence in advanced cancer that host factors, such as weight loss, poor performance status and the host systemic inflammatory response, are linked, and the latter is an important tumor-stage-independent predictor of outcome. Indeed, the systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by an elevated level of C-reactive protein, is now included in the definition of cancer cachexia. This review examines the role of the systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer. Approximately 80 studies have evaluated the role of the systemic inflammatory response using biochemical or hematological markers, such as elevated C-reactive protein levels, hypoalbuminemia or increased white cell, neutrophil and platelet counts. Combinations of such factors have been used to derive simple inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the platelet:lymphocyte ratio. This review demonstrates that there is now good evidence that preoperative measures of the systemic inflammatory response predict cancer survival, independent of tumor stage, in primary operable cancer. The evidence is particularly robust in colorectal (including liver metastases), gastro-esophageal and renal cancers. As described in this article, measurement of the systemic inflammatory response is simple, reliable and can be clinically incorporated into current staging algorithms. This will provide the clinician with a better prediction of outcome, and therefore better treatment allocation in patients with primary operable cancer. Furthermore, systemic inflammation-based markers and prognostic scores not only identify patients at risk, but also provide well-defined therapeutic targets for future clinical trials.
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            Relation Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Cardiovascular Event Rate in People With Coronary Disease.

            BACKGROUND: Higher levels of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. We examined the association between RDW and the risk of all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a population of people with coronary disease who were free of heart failure at baseline. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study. Baseline RDW was measured in 4111 participants who were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg daily or placebo and followed for a median of 59.7 months. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between RDW and adverse clinical outcomes. During nearly 60 months of follow-up, 376 participants died. A significant association was noted between baseline RDW level and the adjusted risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per percent increase in RDW, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.24). After categorization based on quartile of baseline RDW and further adjustment for hematocrit and other cardiovascular risk factors, a graded independent relation between RDW and death was observed (P for trend=0.001). For instance, participants with RDW in the highest quartile had an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 2.47) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Higher levels of RDW were also associated with increased risk of coronary death/nonfatal myocardial infarction, new symptomatic heart failure, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We found a graded independent relation between higher levels of RDW and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in people with prior myocardial infarction but no symptomatic heart failure at baseline.
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              Epidemiology of primary liver cancer.

               J Ribes,  J. Borrás,  F Bosch (1999)
              Liver cancer (LC) ranks fifth in frequency in the world with an estimated number of 437,000 new cases in 1990. In developing countries, incidence rates are two- to three-fold higher than in developed countries. The geographic areas at highest risk are located in Eastern Asia, with age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) ranking from 27.6 to 36.6 per 100,000 in men; Middle Africa, with AAIRs ranking from 20.8 to 38.1 per 100,000 in men; and some countries of Western Africa, with AAIRs ranking from 30 to 48 per 100,000 in men. The geographic areas at lowest LC risk are Northern Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and the Caucasian populations in North and Latin America, with AAIRs below 5.0 per 100,000 in men. Excess of LC incidence among men compared to women is universal, with sex ratios between 1.5 and 3.0. Significant variations in LC incidence among different ethnic groups living in the same geographical area and among migrants of the same ethnic groups living in different areas have been extensively described. The variability of LC incidence rates between countries and within countries, strongly suggests differences in exposure to risk factors. The role of chronic infection with the Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) in the etiology of LC is well established. The attributable risk estimates for LC for each of these hepatotropic viruses vary among countries but the combined effects of persistent HBV or HCV infections account for well over 80% of LC cases worldwide. Other documented risk factors such as aflatoxin exposure in diets, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and oral contraceptives may explain the residual variation between and within countries. Interactions between some risk factors have been postulated, and are subject of active research. New laboratory techniques and biological markers such as polymerase chain reaction detection of HBV DNA and HCV RNA, as well as specific mutations related to aflatoxin exposure may help to provide quantitative estimates of the risk related to each these factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                19 June 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 1449-1464
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University , Zunyi City, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Zunyi Fifth People’s Hospital (Zunyi Mental Health Center) , Zunyi City, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University , Zunyi City, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Shanghai Mental Health Center Affiliated to School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai City, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yao Ouyang Department of Respiratory Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University , 149 Daliang Road, Zunyi City, Guizhou563003, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +8613885216891 Email ouyangyao116@sohu.com
                Article
                245842
                10.2147/COPD.S245842
                7310996
                © 2020 Long et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 6, References: 60, Pages: 16
                Funding
                Funded by: Zunyi City Science and Technology Cooperation Support Project NS
                Award ID: [2019]12
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81960016
                Funded by: Basic Research Project of Guizhou Science and Technology Department, China
                Award ID: [2019]1349
                Funded by: Doctoral Research Initiation Fund of Zunyi Medical University
                Award ID: [2018]04)
                This study was funded jointly by grants from the Zunyi City Science and Technology Cooperation Support Project NS (No. [2019]12), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81960016), the Basic Research Project of Guizhou Science and Technology Department, China (No. [2019]1349) and the Doctoral Research Initiation Fund of Zunyi Medical University (No. [2018]04).
                Categories
                Original Research

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