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      A dominant antigenic epitope on SARS-CoV spike protein identified by an avian single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-expressing phage

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          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emergent human disease, which requires rapid diagnosis and effective therapy. Among antibody sources, immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is the major antibody found in chicken eggs and can be used as an alternative to mammalian antibodies normally used in research and immunotherapy. In this study, phage-expressing chicken monoclonal scFv antibody was chosen and characterized with phage display antibody technology. Truncated fragments of SARS-CoV spike protein were cloned in pET-21 vector and expressed in BL-21 Escherichia coli ( E. coli) cells. After purification, the purity of these recombinant spike proteins was examined on SDS–PAGE and their identity verified with Western blot analysis using anti-his antibodies and sera from convalescent stage SARS-CoV-infected patients. Using these bacteria-derived proteins to immunize chickens, it was found that polyclonal IgY antibodies in the egg yolk and sera were highly reactive to the immunogens, as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemical staining analysis. A phage displaying scFv library was also established from spleen B cells of immunized chicken with 5 × 10 7 clones. After four panning cycles, the eluted phage titer showed a 10-fold increase. In sequence analysis with chicken germline gene, five phage clones reacted, with large dissimilarities of between 31 and 62%, in the complementarity-determining regions, one dominant phage 4S1 had strong binding to fragment Se-e, located between amino acid residues 456–650 of the spike protein and this particular phage had significantly strong binding to SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells. Based on the results, we conclude that generating specific scFv-expressing phage binders with the phage display system can be successfully achieved and that this knowledge can be applied in clinical or academic research.

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          Most cited references 28

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          A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

          A worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been associated with exposures originating from a single ill health care worker from Guangdong Province, China. We conducted studies to identify the etiologic agent of this outbreak. We received clinical specimens from patients in seven countries and tested them, using virus-isolation techniques, electron-microscopical and histologic studies, and molecular and serologic assays, in an attempt to identify a wide range of potential pathogens. None of the previously described respiratory pathogens were consistently identified. However, a novel coronavirus was isolated from patients who met the case definition of SARS. Cytopathological features were noted in Vero E6 cells inoculated with a throat-swab specimen. Electron-microscopical examination revealed ultrastructural features characteristic of coronaviruses. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining revealed reactivity with group I coronavirus polyclonal antibodies. Consensus coronavirus primers designed to amplify a fragment of the polymerase gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to obtain a sequence that clearly identified the isolate as a unique coronavirus only distantly related to previously sequenced coronaviruses. With specific diagnostic RT-PCR primers we identified several identical nucleotide sequences in 12 patients from several locations, a finding consistent with a point-source outbreak. Indirect fluorescence antibody tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays made with the new isolate have been used to demonstrate a virus-specific serologic response. This virus may never before have circulated in the U.S. population. A novel coronavirus is associated with this outbreak, and the evidence indicates that this virus has an etiologic role in SARS. Because of the death of Dr. Carlo Urbani, we propose that our first isolate be named the Urbani strain of SARS-associated coronavirus. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

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            In March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length and has 11 open reading frames, and its genome organization is similar to that of other coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons showed that SARS-CoV is not closely related to any of the previously characterized coronaviruses.
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              Protein engineering of antibody binding sites: recovery of specific activity in an anti-digoxin single-chain Fv analogue produced in Escherichia coli.

              A biosynthetic antibody binding site, which incorporated the variable domains of anti-digoxin monoclonal antibody 26-10 in a single polypeptide chain (Mr = 26,354), was produced in Escherichia coli by protein engineering. This variable region fragment (Fv) analogue comprised the 26-10 heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) connected by a 15-amino acid linker to form a single-chain Fv (sFv). The sFv was designed as a prolyl-VH-(linker)-VL sequence of 248 amino acids. A 744-base-pair DNA sequence corresponding to this sFv protein was derived by using an E. coli codon preference, and the sFv gene was assembled starting from synthetic oligonucleotides. The sFv polypeptide was expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli, using a leader derived from the trp LE sequence. The sFv protein was obtained by acid cleavage of the unique Asp-Pro peptide bond engineered at the junction of leader and sFv in the fusion protein [(leader)-Asp-Pro-VH-(linker)-VL]. After isolation and renaturation, folded sFv displayed specificity for digoxin and related cardiac glycosides similar to that of natural 26-10 Fab fragments. Binding between affinity-purified sFv and digoxin exhibited an association constant [Ka = (3.2 +/- 0.9) x 10(7) M-1] that was about a factor of 6 smaller than that found for 26-10 Fab fragments [Ka = (1.9 +/- 0.2) x 10(8) M-1] under the same buffer conditions, consisting of 0.01 M sodium acetate, pH 5.5/0.25 M urea.

                Author and article information

                Vet Immunol Immunopathol
                Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol
                Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
                Elsevier B.V.
                12 February 2007
                15 May 2007
                12 February 2007
                : 117
                : 1
                : 75-85
                [a ]Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [b ]Graduate Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [c ]School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [d ]Department of Applied Bioscience Division, Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, Tainan, Taiwan
                [e ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [f ]Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [g ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [h ]Department of General Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 2 27361661x3325; fax: +886 2 27324510. yangyuan@ 123456tmu.edu.tw

                Dr. Cheng and Dr. Yang contributed equally to this paper.

                Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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