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Quantification of three Macrolide Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical lots by HPLC: Development, Validation and Application to a Simultaneous Separation

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      Abstract

      A new validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with rapid analysis time and high efficiency, for the analysis of erythromycin, azithromycin and spiramycin, under isocratic conditions with ODB RP18 as a stationary phase is described. Using an eluent composed of acetonitrile –2-methyl-2-propanol –hydrogenphosphate buffer, pH 6.5, with 1.5% triethylamine (33:7: up to 100, v/v/v), delivered at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Ultra Violet (UV) detection is performed at 210 nm. The selectivity is satisfactory enough and no problematic interfering peaks are observed. The procedure is quantitatively characterized and repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits are very satisfactory. The method is applied successfully for the assay of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms as tablets and powder for oral suspension. Recovery experiments revealed recovery of 97.13–100.28%.

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      Sample preparation strategy for the simultaneous determination of macrolide antibiotics in animal feedingstuffs by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD).

      A novel and suitable clean-up method that allows, for the first time, the simultaneous determination of a rather large number of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, rosamicin, spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin and josamycin in feedingstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) is presented in this work. The effectiveness of the developed clean-up method allows the quantification of the target macrolides in poultry feed using standard calibration curves instead of matrix matched standards, which overcomes the general problem of finding representative blanks. Furthermore an additional back extraction included in the sample preparation procedure allows the determination of an additional macrolide (oleandomycin) with detection limits, expressed as apparent concentration in poultry feed, ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 mg kg(-1) and relative standard deviation values ranging from 3.6 to 10.1% depending on the target analyte. Moreover, this additional step has been proven to enlarge the scope of the method by the extension of its applicability, at the target level of concentration, to other animal feedingstuffs such as pig and cattle. The analysis of real feedingstuffs containing macrolides demonstrated the fitness for purpose of the whole analytical procedure as well as a good fitting between real and spiked samples. The proposed methods appeared therefore as a sound alternative in the frame of control (e.g. for post-screening purposes) and/or monitoring surveillance programmes at the target level of 1.0 mg kg(-1) established according to the reported lowest dosage of additive needed to lead a growth promoting effect.
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        High performance liquid chromatographic determination of azithromycin in serum using fluorescence detection and its application in human pharmacokinetic studies.

        A fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of azithromycin in human serum using fluorescence detection was developed. The drug and an internal standard (clarithromycin) were extracted from serum using n-hexan and subjected to pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate as labeling agent. Analysis was performed on a phenyl packing material column with sodium phosphate buffer containing 2 ml/l triethylamine (pH 5.9) and methanol (29:71, v/v) as the mobile phase. The standard curve was linear over the range of 10-500 ng/ml of azithromycin in human serum. The means between-days precision were from 13.3% (for 10 ng/ml) to 2% (500 ng/ml) and the within-day precision from 11.9 to 1.7% determined on spiked samples. The accuracy of the method was 100.7-107.2% (between days) and 100.3-107.8% (within day). The limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. This method was applied in a bioequivalence study of four different azithromycin preparations in 12 healthy volunteers.
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          Determination of azithromycin by ion-pair HPLC with UV detection.

          An ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection was developed for the determination of azithromycin using sodium heptanesulfonate as an ion-pair reagent. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (0.045 M, pH 3.0 adjusted by phosphoric acid):acetonitrile 47:15 (v/v) and the concentration of sodium heptanesulfonate in the aqueous phase was 0.002 M. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The chromatographic column was Dikma Technologies Diamonsil C18 column, 5 microm 150 mm x 4.6 mm, which was maintained at 25 degrees C. Applying the method to a stability study of azithromycin eye drops, it was found that the related substance could be detected and the profile of the AZM peak was symmetrical and the column efficiency was high. Accordingly, it is suitable for the routine analysis and stability testing of azithromycin preparations.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]Laboratory of Research on Bioactive Products and Biomass Valorization (LRPBVB), Ecole Normale Supérieure–Kouba, P.O. Box 92, Kouba, 16050, Algiers, Algeria
            [b ]Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turin, S. Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano (TO), Italy
            Author notes
            *Corresponding author. Tel.:+213–21–2975–11 Fax:+213–21–2820–67 E-mail: mahmoudi_a2003@ 123456yahoo.fr
            Journal
            BJPharm
            British Journal of Pharmacy
            University of Huddersfield Press
            2058-8356
            14 November 2016
            : 1
            : 1
            : 63-73
            10.5920/bjpharm.2016.03
            © 2016, A. Mahmoudi, Silvia De Francia, M.S. Boukhechem, Elisa Pirro

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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