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      Quantification of three Macrolide Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical lots by HPLC: Development, Validation and Application to a Simultaneous Separation

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          Abstract

          A new validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with rapid analysis time and high efficiency, for the analysis of erythromycin, azithromycin and spiramycin, under isocratic conditions with ODB RP 18 as a stationary phase is described. Using an eluent composed of acetonitrile –2-methyl-2-propanol –hydrogenphosphate buffer, pH 6.5, with 1.5% triethylamine (33:7: up to 100, v/v/v), delivered at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min -1. Ultra Violet (UV) detection is performed at 210 nm. The selectivity is satisfactory enough and no problematic interfering peaks are observed. The procedure is quantitatively characterized and repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits are very satisfactory. The method is applied successfully for the assay of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms as tablets and powder for oral suspension. Recovery experiments revealed recovery of 97.13–100.28%.

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          Identification and quantification of five macrolide antibiotics in several tissues, eggs and milk by liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

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            Analysis of macrolide antibiotics.

            The following macrolide antibiotics have been covered in this review: erythromycin and its related substances, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, roxithromycin, flurithromycin, josamycin, rokitamycin, kitasamycin, mycinamycin, mirosamycin, oleandomycin, rosaramicin, spiramycin and tylosin. The application of various thin-layer chromatography, paper chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis procedures for their analysis are described. These techniques have been applied to the separation and quantitative analysis of the macrolides in fermentation media, purity assessment of raw materials, assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms and the measurement of clinically useful macrolide antibiotics in biological samples such as blood, plasma, serum, urine and tissues. Data relating to the chromatographic behaviour of some macrolide antibiotics as well as the various detection methods used, such as bioautography, UV spectrophotometry, fluorometry, electrochemical detection, chemiluminescence and mass spectrometry techniques are also included.
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              Sample preparation strategy for the simultaneous determination of macrolide antibiotics in animal feedingstuffs by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD).

              A novel and suitable clean-up method that allows, for the first time, the simultaneous determination of a rather large number of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, rosamicin, spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin and josamycin in feedingstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) is presented in this work. The effectiveness of the developed clean-up method allows the quantification of the target macrolides in poultry feed using standard calibration curves instead of matrix matched standards, which overcomes the general problem of finding representative blanks. Furthermore an additional back extraction included in the sample preparation procedure allows the determination of an additional macrolide (oleandomycin) with detection limits, expressed as apparent concentration in poultry feed, ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 mg kg(-1) and relative standard deviation values ranging from 3.6 to 10.1% depending on the target analyte. Moreover, this additional step has been proven to enlarge the scope of the method by the extension of its applicability, at the target level of concentration, to other animal feedingstuffs such as pig and cattle. The analysis of real feedingstuffs containing macrolides demonstrated the fitness for purpose of the whole analytical procedure as well as a good fitting between real and spiked samples. The proposed methods appeared therefore as a sound alternative in the frame of control (e.g. for post-screening purposes) and/or monitoring surveillance programmes at the target level of 1.0 mg kg(-1) established according to the reported lowest dosage of additive needed to lead a growth promoting effect.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BJPharm
                British Journal of Pharmacy
                University of Huddersfield Press
                2058-8356
                14 November 2016
                : 1
                : 1
                : 63-73
                Affiliations
                [a ]Laboratory of Research on Bioactive Products and Biomass Valorization (LRPBVB), Ecole Normale Supérieure–Kouba, P.O. Box 92, Kouba, 16050, Algiers, Algeria
                [b ]Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turin, S. Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano (TO), Italy
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Tel.:+213–21–2975–11 Fax:+213–21–2820–67 E-mail: mahmoudi_a2003@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                10.5920/bjpharm.2016.03
                © 2016, A. Mahmoudi, Silvia De Francia, M.S. Boukhechem, Elisa Pirro

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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