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      Eotaxin levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea

      1 , 2

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove Medical Press

      primary dysmenorrhea, eotaxin, eosinophil, ELISA, etiopathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common cause of pelvic pain that can cause limitations in daily activities. Treatment options sometimes result in failure, suggesting that different mechanisms may be effective in etiopathogenesis. Eosinophils are cells that are present in endometrium only in the perimenstrual period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of eotaxin, a potent eosinophilic chemoattractant, in patients with PD.

          Patients and methods

          Thirty patients with PD and thirty healthy women were included in the study. Venous blood sample of 10 mL was collected from each participant. Blood samples were taken in the first 2 days of the menstrual cycle at any period of the day. Serum eotaxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunofluorescence assay.

          Results

          There were no statistically significant differences between the demographic properties of groups in terms of age and body mass index. Eotaxin levels were significantly different in patients with PD than the control subjects ( p=0.012).

          Conclusion

          Detection of different levels of eotaxin in patients with PD may be a new and important step in determining the factors contributing to the pathogenesis of dysmenorrhea.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia.

          Eotaxin is an eosinophil-specific chemoattractant that has been recently identified in rodent models of asthma and host response against tumors. To determine whether a similar molecule might play a role in human inflammatory diseases characterized by eosinophilia, we isolated the human eotaxin gene. We demonstrate that human eotaxin is an early response gene of cytokine-stimulated epithelial and endothelial cells, and is induced in peripheral blood eosinophils by interleukin-3. Eotaxin is directly chemotactic for eosinophils, but not mononuclear cells or neutrophils. Eotaxin messenger RNA accumulates markedly in the lesions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), but not in the lesions of patients with diverticulitis. These results now provide a mechanism involving eotaxin to explain the eosinophil infiltration seen in a variety of human disease; as such, an eotaxin antagonist may be a novel therapy for certain human diseases characterized by tissue eosinophilia.
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            Eotaxin: a potent eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine detected in a guinea pig model of allergic airways inflammation

            Eosinophil accumulation is a prominent feature of allergic inflammatory reactions, such as those occurring in the lung of the allergic asthmatic, but the endogenous chemoattractants involved have not been identified. We have investigated this in an established model of allergic inflammation, using in vivo systems both to generate and assay relevant activity. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was taken from sensitized guinea pigs at intervals after aerosol challenge with ovalbumin. BAL fluid was injected intradermally in unsensitized assay guinea pigs and the accumulation of intravenously injected 111In- eosinophils was measured. Activity was detected at 30 min after allergen challenge, peaking from 3 to 6 h and declining to low levels by 24 h. 3-h BAL fluid was purified using high performance liquid chromatography techniques in conjunction with the skin assay. Microsequencing revealed a novel protein from the C-C branch of the platelet factor 4 superfamily of chemotactic cytokines. The protein, "eotaxin," exhibits homology of 53% with human MCP-1, 44% with guinea pig MCP-1, 31% with human MIP-1 alpha, and 26% with human RANTES. Laser desorption time of flight mass analysis gave four different signals (8.15, 8.38, 8.81, and 9.03 kD), probably reflecting differential O- glycosylation. Eotaxin was highly potent, inducing substantial 111In- eosinophil accumulation at a 1-2 pmol dose in the skin, but did not induce significant 111In-neutrophil accumulation. Eotaxin was a potent stimulator of both guinea pig and human eosinophils in vitro. Human recombinant RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MCP-1 were all inactive in inducing 111In-eosinophil accumulation in guinea pig skin; however, evidence was obtained that eotaxin shares a binding site with RANTES on guinea pig eosinophils. This is the first description of a potent eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine generated in vivo and suggests the possibility that similar molecules may be important in the human asthmatic lung.
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              Cloning of the human eosinophil chemoattractant, eotaxin. Expression, receptor binding, and functional properties suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of eosinophils.

              The CC chemokine eotaxin, identified in guinea pigs and also recently in mice, may be a key element for the selective recruitment of eosinophils to certain inflamed tissues. Using a partial mouse eotaxin CDNA probe, the human eotaxin gene was cloned and found to be 61.8 and 63.2% identical at the amino acid level to guinea pig and mouse eotaxin. Human eotaxin protein was a strong and specific eosinophil chemoattractant in vitro and was an effective eosinophil chemoattractant when injected into the skin of a rhesus monkey. Radiolabeled eotaxin was used to identify a high affinity receptor on eosinophils (0.52 nM Kd), expressed at 4.8 x 10(4) sites per cell. This receptor also bound RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 with lower affinity, but not macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Eotaxin could desensitize calcium responses of eosinophils to RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3, although RANTES was able to only partially desensitize eosinophil calcium responses to eotaxin. Immunohistochemistry on human nasal polyp with antieotaxin mAbs showed that certain leukocytes as well as respiratory epithelium were intensely immunoreactive, and eosinophil infiltration occurred at sites of eotaxin upregulation. Thus eotaxin in humans is a potent and selective eosinophil chemoattractant that is expressed by a variety cell types in certain inflammatory conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                23 March 2018
                : 11
                : 611-613
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Elazig Education and Research Hospital, Elazig, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ebru Celik Kavak, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Firat University, Yahya Kemal Street, Elazig, 23100, Turkey, Tel +90 424 233 3555 2124, Fax +90 424 237 9138, Email eckavak@ 123456gmail.com ; drkavak@ 123456yahoo.com.tr
                Article
                jpr-11-611
                10.2147/JPR.S146603
                5870633
                © 2018 Gul and Celik Kavak. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                etiopathogenesis, elisa, eosinophil, eotaxin, primary dysmenorrhea

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