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      Central Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Infusion Opposes Cardiovascular and Metabolic Suppression during Caloric Restriction

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          Abstract

          Inhibition of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neuronal activity is a well-established adaptation to caloric restriction (CR) that suppresses pituitary secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone, but may also participate in modulation of autonomic function. Thus, we hypothesized that decreased hypothalamic TRH activity contributes to CR-induced bradycardia and decreased metabolic rate. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry devices for measurement of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and a lateral intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) guide cannula for central infusions. After recovery, rats were housed in metabolic chambers and given either ad libitum(ad-lib) or CR treatments for 7 days; half of each diet group was then given continuous i.c.v. infusions of TRH (25 nmol/h) or saline (0.25 µl/h) for 7 days via osmotic pump. This dose of TRH did not significantly alter peripheral free T<sub>4</sub> levels. In ad-lib rats, TRH infusion produced small reductions in food intake and small increases in HR and BP over saline-infused controls. In CR rats, TRH infusion resulted in an increase in HR and also energy expenditure over saline-infused controls. These results support the hypothesis that suppression of central TRH activity contributes to the homeostatic suppression of energy expenditure and HR observed during CR.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system.

           R D Cone (2005)
          The central melanocortin system is perhaps the best-characterized neuronal pathway involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. This collection of circuits is unique in having the capability of sensing signals from a staggering array of hormones, nutrients and afferent neural inputs. It is likely to be involved in integrating long-term adipostatic signals from leptin and insulin, primarily received by the hypothalamus, with acute signals regulating hunger and satiety, primarily received by the brainstem. The system is also unique from a regulatory point of view in that it is composed of fibers expressing both agonists and antagonists of melanocortin receptors. Given that the central melanocortin system is an active target for development of drugs for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and cachexia, it is important to understand the system in its full complexity, including the likelihood that the system also regulates the cardiovascular and reproductive systems.
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            Thyroid hormone action in the heart.

            The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone action, and marked changes occur in cardiac function in patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. T(3)-induced changes in cardiac function can result from direct or indirect T(3) effects. Direct effects result from T(3) action in the heart itself and are mediated by nuclear or extranuclear mechanisms. Extranuclear T(3) effects, which occur independent of nuclear T(3) receptor binding and increases in protein synthesis, influence primarily the transport of amino acids, sugars, and calcium across the cell membrane. Nuclear T(3) effects are mediated by the binding of T(3) to specific nuclear receptor proteins, which results in increased transcription of T(3)-responsive cardiac genes. The T(3) receptor is a member of the ligand-activated transcription factor family and is encoded by cellular erythroblastosis A (c-erb A) genes. T(3) also leads to an increase in the speed of diastolic relaxation, which is caused by the more efficient pumping of the calcium ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This T(3) effect results from T(3)-induced increases in the level of the mRNA coding for the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase protein, leading to an increased number of calcium ATPase pump units in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
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              Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

              The past decade has greatly increased our understanding and appreciation of the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate food intake and body weight. This was spearheaded by the discovery of key molecules regulating body weight homeostasis. It is now also apparent that the CNS, especially the hypothalamus, plays a primary role in directly regulating glucose homeostasis, independently of effects on body weight. These discoveries are important given the increasing incidences of obesity and type II diabetes in Western societies. In this article, we will highlight recent data from genetically modified mice. These data and other models have helped to dissect the CNS pathways regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis. Finally, although these studies have been illustrative, they also underscore our relative lack of knowledge and highlight the need for more definitive approaches to unravel the functional significance of these pathways. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2006
                August 2006
                25 August 2006
                : 83
                : 2
                : 69-76
                Affiliations
                aProgram in Neuroscience, Departments of bNutrition, Food, and Exercise Science and cBiomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fla., and dDepartment of Biology, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., USA
                Article
                94004 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:69–76
                10.1159/000094004
                16785745
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 52, Pages: 8
                Categories
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